Advertisement

Herpes Zoster Vaccines

  • Michael N. Oxman
  • Ruth Harbecke
Chapter

Abstract

Herpes zoster is a localized disease of the sensory ganglion, nerve and skin, caused by reactivation and replication of endogenous varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that has persisted as a latent infection in sensory and autonomic neurons following an earlier episode of varicella. It is characterized by unilateral radicular pain and a vesicular rash that is generally limited to the dermatome innervated by a single spinal or cranial sensory ganglion. Replication and spread of reactivated VZV within the sensory ganglion and adjacent neural structures causes necrosis of neurons and supporting cells, resulting in neuropathic pain and sensory dysfunction in the affected dermatome during the acute phase of herpes zoster.Neuropathic pain may persist after rash healing, a debilitating complication known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The incidence and severity of herpes zoster and PHN increase markedly with increasing age in parallel with an age-related decline in VZV-specific cell mediated immunity (VZV CMI).Antiviral treatment can reduce the duration and severity of acute herpes zoster and prevent complications that result from continued VZV replication and spread, but it does not prevent the development of PHN.

The Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) demonstrated that a live attenuated zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness due to herpes zoster by 61 %, the incidence of PHN by 67 %, and the incidence of herpes zoster by 51 % in persons ≥60 years of age. Vaccine efficacy for the incidence of PHN was undiminished in older (≥70 year-old) subjects compared to those who were 60-69 years of age.Large retrospective effectiveness studies have confirmed the SPS results.Zoster vaccine efficacy waned over time in the SPS subjects, and long-term effectiveness studies have also confirmed this observation.A newly-developed adjuvanted VZV glycoprotein E vaccine shows significantly greater efficacy and can be administered to immunocompromised patients in whom the use of live attenuated zoster vaccine is contraindicated.

Notes

Acknowledgments

MNO and RH are grateful to Ms. Donna Mussatto for her expertise and patience in preparing the manuscript and to the James M. and Jesse V. Scott Fund for Shingles Research for continued support. We also thank Dr. Mona Marin for her kind help in clarifying the details of her recent studies.

References

  1. 1.
    Arbeter AM, Starr SE, Plotkin SA (1986) Varicella vaccine studies in healthy children and adults. Pediatrics 78(4 Pt 2):748–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arvin AM (1992) Cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis 166(Suppl 1):S35–S41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arvin AM (2001) Varicella-zoster virus: molecular virology and virus-host interactions. Curr Opin Microbiol 4(4):442–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arvin AM, Gilden D (2013) Varicella-zoster virus. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology, vol 2. 6thth edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 2015-2057Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arvin AM, Oliver S, Reichelt M, Moffat JF, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Berarducci B (2010) Analysis of the functions of glycoproteins E and I and their promoters during VZV replication in vitro and in skin and T-cell xenografts in the SCID mouse model of VZV pathogenesis. In: Abendroth A, Arvin AM, Moffat JF (eds) Current topics in microbiology and immunology, Varicella-zoster virus, vol 342. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 129–146Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asada H, Nagayama K, Okazaki A, Mori Y, Okuno Y, Takao Y, Miyazaki Y, Onishi F, Okeda M, Yano S, Kumihashi H, Gomi Y, Maeda K, Ishikawa T, Iso H, Yamanishi K (2013) An inverse correlation of VZV skin-test reaction, but not antibody, with severity of herpes zoster skin symptoms and zoster-associated pain. J Dermatol Sci 69(3):243–249. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2012.10.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asano Y, Nagai T, Miyata T, Yazaki T, Ito S, Yamanishi K, Takahashi M (1985) Long-term protective immunity of recipients of the OKA strain of live varicella vaccine. Pediatrics 75(4):667–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asano Y, Shiraki K, Takahashi M, Nagai H, Ozaki T, Yazaki T (1981) Soluble skin test antigen of varicella-zoster virus prepared from the fluid of infected cultures. J Infect Dis 143(5):684–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aziz M, Kessler H, Huhn G (2013) Providers’ lack of knowledge about herpes zoster in HIV-infected patients is among barriers to herpes zoster vaccination. Int J STD AIDS 24(6):433–439. doi: 10.1177/0956462412472461 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baxter R, Tran TN, Hansen J, Emery M, Fireman B, Bartlett J, Lewis N, Saddier P (2012) Safety of Zostavax – a cohort study in a managed care organization. Vaccine 30(47):6636–6641. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.08.070 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benson C, Hua L, Andersen J, Jiang J, Bozzolo D, Annunziato P, Read S, Pollard R, Rusin D, Lennox J (2012) ZOSTAVAX is generally safe and immunogenic in HIV+ adults virologically suppressed on ART: results of a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Paper presented at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, WA, 5–8 Mar 2012Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berger R, Florent G, Just M (1981) Decrease of the lymphoproliferative response to varicella-zoster virus antigen in the aged. Infect Immun 32(1):24–27PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berger R, Luescher D, Just M (1984) Enhancement of varicella-zoster-specific immune responses in the elderly by boosting with varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 149(4):647–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berkowitz EM, Moyle G, Stellbrink HJ, Schürmann D, Kegg S, Stoll M, El Idrissi M, Oostvogels L, Heineman TC, Group Z-HsS (2015) Safety and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in HIV-infected adults: a phase 1/2a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Infect Dis 211(8):1279–1287. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu606 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bhalla P, Forrest GN, Gershon M, Zhou Y, Chen J, LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Gershon AA (2015) Disseminated, persistent, and fatal infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus in an adult following stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 60(7):1068–1074. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu970 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bombatch C, Pallotta A, Neuner EA, Taege AJ (2016) Evaluation of herpes zoster vaccination in HIV-infected patients 50 years of age and older. Ann Pharmacother 50(4):326–327. doi: 10.1177/1060028016632262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Borba EF, Ribeiro AC, Martin P, Costa LP, Guedes LK, Bonfa E (2010) Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of herpes zoster in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol 16(3):119–122. doi: 10.1097/RHU.0b013e3181d52ed7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bourdette DN, Rosenberg NL, Yatsu FM (1983) Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and delayed ipsilateral cerebral infarction. Neurology 33(11):1428–1432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brazier J, Jones N, Kind P (1993) Testing the validity of the Euroqol and comparing it with the SF-36 health survey questionnaire. Qual Life Res 2(3):169–180PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Breuer J, Schmid DS (2008) Vaccine Oka variants and sequence variability in vaccine-related skin lesions. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):S54–S57. doi: 10.1086/522140 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brisson M, Edmunds WJ, Law B, Gay NJ, Walld R, Brownell M, Roos L, De Serres G (2001) Epidemiology of varicella zoster virus infection in Canada and the United Kingdom. Epidemiol Infect 127(2):305–314PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bruusgaard E (1932) The mutual relation between zoster and varicella. Br J Dermatol Syphilol 44:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burgoon CF Jr, Burgoon JS, Baldridge GD (1957) The natural history of herpes zoster. JAMA 164(3):265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burke BL, Steele RW, Beard OW, Wood JS, Cain TD, Marmer DJ (1982) Immune responses to varicella-zoster in the aged. Arch Intern Med 142(2):291–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chakravarty EF, Michaud K, Katz R, Wolfe F (2013) Increased incidence of herpes zoster among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 22(3):238–244. doi: 10.1177/0961203312470186 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang MN, Guess HA, Heyse JF (1994) Reduction in burden of illness: a new efficacy measure for prevention trials. Stat Med 13(18):1807–1814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chao DY, Chien YZ, Yeh YP, Hsu PS, Lian IB (2012) The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Taiwan during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, 2000-2008. Epidemiol Infect 140(6):1131–1140. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811001786 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheetham TC, Marcy SM, Tseng HF, Sy LS, Liu IL, Bixler F, Baxter R, Donahue JG, Naleway AL, Jacobsen SJ (2015) Risk of herpes zoster and disseminated varicella zoster in patients taking immunosuppressant drugs at the time of zoster vaccination. Mayo Clin Proc 90(7):865–873. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.04.021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen HH, Chen YM, Chen TJ, Lan JL, Lin CH, Chen DY (2011) Risk of herpes zoster in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a three-year follow-up study using a nationwide population-based cohort. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(7):1177–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen HH, Lin CL, Yeh SY, Kao CH (2016b) Short-term dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor use increases the risk of herpes zoster infection in Asian patients with diabetes. QJM 109(2):91–95. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcv096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen HH, Lin IC, Chen HJ, Yeh SY, Kao CH (2016a) Association of herpes zoster and type 1 diabetes mellitus. PLoS One 11(5):e0155175. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen JJ, Gershon AA, Zhishan L, Cowles RA, Gershon MD (2011) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects and establishes latency in enteric neurons. J Neurovirol 17(6):578–589. doi: 10.1007/s13365-011-0070-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen SY, Suaya JA, Li Q, Galindo CM, Misurski D, Burstin S, Levin MJ (2014) Incidence of herpes zoster in patients with altered immune function. Infection 42(2):325–334. doi: 10.1007/s15010-013-0550-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chiu C, McCausland M, Sidney J, Duh FM, Rouphael N, Mehta A, Mulligan M, Carrington M, Wieland A, Sullivan NL, Weinberg A, Levin MJ, Pulendran B, Peters B, Sette A, Ahmed R (2014) Broadly reactive human CD8 T cells that recognize an epitope conserved between VZV, HSV and EBV. PLoS Pathogens 10(3):e1004008. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004008 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chlibek R, Bayas JM, Collins H, de la Pinta ML, Ledent E, Mols JF, Heineman TC (2013) Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine against herpes zoster in adults >=50 years of age. J Infect Dis 208(12):1953–1961. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit365 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chlibek R, Pauksens K, Rombo L, van Rijckevorsel G, Richardus JH, Plassmann G, Schwarz TF, Catteau G, Lal H, Heineman TC (2016) Long-term immunogenicity and safety of an investigational herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. Vaccine 34(6):863–868. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chlibek R, Smetana J, Pauksens K, Rombo L, Van den Hoek JA, Richardus JH, Plassmann G, Schwarz TF, Ledent E, Heineman TC (2014) Safety and immunogenicity of three different formulations of an adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine in older adults: a phase II, randomized, controlled study. Vaccine 32(15):1745–1753. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.01.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chou JF, Kernan NA, Prockop S, Heller G, Scaradavou A, Kobos R, Knowles MA, Papadopoulos EB, Casson A, Copeland C, Torok-Castanza J, Zakak N, Ruggiero J, Small TN (2011) Safety and immunogenicity of the live attenuated varicella vaccine following T replete or T cell-depleted related and unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 17(11):1708–1713. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.006 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Civen R, Chaves SS, Jumaan A, Wu H, Mascola L, Gargiullo P, Seward JF (2009) The incidence and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster among children and adolescents after implementation of varicella vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28(11):954–959. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181a90b16 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clarke P, Beer T, Cohrs R, Gilden DH (1995) Configuration of latent varicella-zoster virus DNA. J Virol 69(12):8151–8154PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cohen JI (2013) Clinical practice: herpes zoster. N Engl J Med 369(3):255–263. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1302674 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cohrs RJ, Barbour M, Gilden DH (1996) Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) transcription during latency in human ganglia: detection of transcripts mapping to genes 21, 29, 62, and 63 in a cDNA library enriched for VZV RNA. J Virol 70(5):2789–2796PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH (2007) Prevalence and abundance of latently transcribed varicella-zoster virus genes in human ganglia. J Virol 81(6):2950–2956. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02745-06 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH, Kinchington PR, Grinfeld E, Kennedy PG (2003) Varicella-zoster virus gene 66 transcription and translation in latently infected human Ganglia. J Virol 77(12):6660–6665PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cohrs RJ, Mehta SK, Schmid DS, Gilden DH, Pierson DL (2008) Asymptomatic reactivation and shed of infectious varicella zoster virus in astronauts. J Med Virol 80(6):1116–1122. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21173 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cohrs RJ, Randall J, Smith J, Gilden DH, Dabrowski C, van Der Keyl H, Tal-Singer R (2000) Analysis of individual human trigeminal ganglia for latent herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus nucleic acids using real-time PCR. J Virol 74(24):11464–11471PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cohrs RJ, Srock K, Barbour MB, Owens G, Mahalingam R, Devlin ME, Wellish M, Gilden DH (1994) Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) transcription during latency in human ganglia: construction of a cDNA library from latently infected human trigeminal ganglia and detection of a VZV transcript. J Virol 68(12):7900–7908PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coplan PM, Schmader K, Nikas A, Chan ISF, Choo P, Levin MJ, Johnson G, Bauer M, Williams HM, Kaplan KM, Guess HA, Oxman MN (2004) Development of a measure of the burden of pain due to herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia for prevention trials: adaptation of the brief pain inventory. J Pain 5(6):344–356PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Costa E, Buxton J, Brown J, Templeton KE, Breuer J (2016) Johannessen I (2016) Fatal disseminated varicella zoster infection following zoster vaccination in an immunocompromised patient. BMJ Case Rep. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-212688 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Croen KD, Ostrove JM, Dragovic LJ, Straus SE (1988) Patterns of gene expression and sites of latency in human nerve ganglia are different for varicella-zoster and herpes simplex viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(24):9773–9777PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Crumpacker CS (2011) Absence of exposure to varicella does not increase the risk of zoster. Clin Infect Dis 53(5):411–412. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir439 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cunningham AL, Lal H, Kovac M, Chlibek R, Hwang SJ, Díez-Domingo J, Godeaux O, Levin MJ, McElhaney JE, Puig-Barberà J, Vanden Abeele C, Vesikari T, Watanabe D, Zahaf T, Ahonen A, Athan E, Barba-Gomez JF, Campora L, de Looze F, Downey HJ, Ghesquiere W, Gorfinkel I, Korhonen T, Leung E, McNeil SA, Oostvogels L, Rombo L, Smetana J, Weckx L, Yeo W, Heineman TC, ZOE-70 Study Group (2016) Efficacy of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine in adults 70 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 375(11):1019–1032. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603800 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Curtis JR, Xie F, Yun H, Bernatsky S, Winthrop KL (2016) Real-world comparative risks of herpes virus infections in tofacitinib and biologic-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 75(10):1–5. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Daut RL, Cleeland CS, Flanery RC (1983) Development of the Wisconsin brief pain questionnaire to assess pain in cancer and other diseases. Pain 17(2):197–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Denny-Brown D, Adams RD, Fitzgerald PJ (1944) Pathologic features of herpes zoster: a note on “geniculate herpes”. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 51(3):216–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Depledge DP, Kundu S, Jensen NJ, Gray ER, Jones M, Steinberg S, Gershon A, Kinchington PR, Schmid DS, Balloux F, Nichols RA, Breuer J (2014) Deep sequencing of viral genomes provides insight into the evolution and pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus and its vaccine in humans. Mol Biol Evol 31(2):397–409. doi: 10.1093/molbev/mst210 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Depledge DP, Yamanishi K, Gomi Y, Gershon AA, Breuer J (2016) Deep sequencing of distinct preparations of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine reveals a conserved core of attenuating single-nucleotide polymorphisms. J Virol 90(19):8698–8704. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00998-16 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Didierlaurent AM, Collignon C, Bourguignon P, Wouters S, Fierens K, Fochesato M, Dendouga N, Langlet C, Malissen B, Lambrecht BN, Garçon N, Van Mechelen M, Morel S (2014) Enhancement of adaptive immunity by the human vaccine adjuvant AS01 depends on activated dendritic cells. J Immunol 193(4):1920–1930. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1400948 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Diez-Domingo J, Weinke T, Garcia de Lomas J, Meyer CU, Bertrand I, Eymin C, Thomas S, Sadorge C (2015) Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a herpes zoster live-attenuated vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: a randomised non-inferiority clinical trial. Vaccine 33(6):789–795. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Donahue JG, Choo PW, Manson JE, Platt R (1995) The incidence of herpes zoster. Arch Intern Med 155(15):1605–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Drolet M, Brisson M, Schmader KE, Levin MJ, Johnson R, Oxman MN, Patrick D, Blanchette C, Mansi JA (2010) The impact of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia on health-related quality of life: a prospective study. CMAJ 182(16):1731–1736. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.091711 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Easton HG (1970) Zoster sine herpete causing acute trigeminal neuralgia. Lancet 2(7682):1065–1066PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Esteban-Vasallo MD, Domínguez-Berjón MF, Gil-Prieto R, Astray-Mochales J, Gil de Miguel A (2014) Sociodemographic characteristics and chronic medical conditions as risk factors for herpes zoster: a population-based study from primary care in Madrid (Spain). Hum Vaccin Immunother 10(6):1650–1660. doi: 10.4161/hv.28620 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    European Medicines Agency. (2016) Annex 1 summary of product characteristics. http://wwwemaeuropaeu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000674/WC500053462pdf. Accessed 18 June 2016
  65. 65.
    Forbes HJ, Bhaskaran K, Thomas SL, Smeeth L, Clayton T, Langan SM (2014) Quantification of risk factors for herpes zoster: population based case-control study. BMJ 348:g2911. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2911 (Clinical research ed)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Forbes HJ, Thomas SL, Smeeth L, Clayton T, Farmer R, Bhaskaran K, Langan SM (2016) A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia. Pain 157(1):30–54. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gaillat J, Gajdos V, Launay O, Malvy D, Demoures B, Lewden L, Pinchinat S, Derrough T, Sana C, Caulin E, Soubeyrand B (2011) Does monastic life predispose to the risk of Saint Anthony’s fire (herpes zoster)? Clin Infect Dis 53(5):405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gebo KA, Kalyani R, Moore RD, Polydefkis MJ (2005) The incidence of, risk factors for, and sequelae of herpes zoster among HIV patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40(2):169–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gelb LD, Dohner DE, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Waner JL, Takahashi M, Dennehy PH, Brown AE (1987) Molecular epidemiology of live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine in children with leukemia and in normal adults. J Infect Dis 155(4):633–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gershon AA (2001) Live-attenuated varicella vaccine. Infect Dis Clin North Am 15(1):65–81 , viiiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gershon AA, Breuer J, Cohen JI, Cohrs RJ, Gershon MD, Gilden D, Grose C, Hambleton S, Kennedy PG, Oxman MN, Seward JF, Yamanishi K (2015a) Varicella zoster virus infection. Nat Rev Dis Primers 1:1–18. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gershon AA, Chen J, Davis L, Krinsky C, Cowles R, Reichard R, Gershon M (2012) Latency of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root, cranial, and enteric ganglia in vaccinated children. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 123:17–33 ; discussion 33-35PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gershon AA, Chen J, Gershon MD (2015b) Use of saliva to identify varicella zoster virus infection of the gut. Clin Infect Dis 61(4):536–544. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ320 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gershon AA, Gershon MD (2013) Pathogenesis and current approaches to control of varicella-zoster virus infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 26(4):728–743. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00052-13 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gershon AA, Gershon MD, Breuer J, Levin MJ, Oaklander AL, Griffiths PD (2010) Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of herpes zoster. J Clin Virol 48(Suppl 1):S2–S7. doi: 10.1016/S1386-6532(10)70002-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gershon AA, LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Mervish N, Lo SH, Meier P (1996) The protective effect of immunologic boosting against zoster: an analysis in leukemic children who were vaccinated against chickenpox. J Infect Dis 173(2):450–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gershon AA, Levin MJ, Weinberg A, Song LY, LaRussa PS, Steinberg SP, Bartlett P, Pediatric ACTGT (2009) A phase I-II study of live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine to boost immunity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with previous varicella. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28(7):653–655. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181998f06 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, LaRussa P, Ferrara A, Hammerschlag M, Gelb L (1988) Immunization of healthy adults with live attenuated varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 158(1):132–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gilden D, Cohrs RJ, Mahalingam R, Nagel MA (2010) Neurological disease produced by varicella zoster virus reactivation without rash. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:243–253. doi: 10.1007/82_2009_3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gilden DH, Dueland AN, Devlin ME, Mahalingam R, Cohrs R (1992) Varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash. J Infect Dis 166(Suppl 1):S30–S34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gilden DH, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Wellish M, Hedley-Whyte ET, Rentier B, Mahalingam R (1996) Varicella zoster virus, a cause of waxing and waning vasculitis: the New England Journal of Medicine case 5-1995 revisited. Neurology 47(6):1441–1446PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gilderman LI, Lawless JF, Nolen TM, Sterling T, Rutledge RZ, Fernsler DA, Azrolan N, Sutradhar SC, Wang WW, Chan IS, Schlienger K, Schodel F, Silber JL, Zostavax Protocol 010 Study G (2008) A double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter safety and immunogenicity study of a refrigerator-stable formulation of Zostavax. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15(2):314–319. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00310-07 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gnann JW Jr, Whitley RJ (2002) Clinical practice. Herpes zoster. N Engl J Med 347(5):340–346. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp013211 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gomi Y, Imagawa T, Takahashi M, Yamanishi K (2000) Oka varicella vaccine is distinguishable from its parental virus in DNA sequence of open reading frame 62 and its transactivation activity. J Med Virol 61(4):497–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gomi Y, Imagawa T, Takahashi M, Yamanishi K (2001) Comparison of DNA sequence and transactivation activity of open reading frame 62 of Oka varicella vaccine and its parental viruses. Arch Virol Suppl 17(17):49–56Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gomi Y, Ozaki T, Nishimura N, Narita A, Suzuki M, Ahn J, Watanabe N, Koyama N, Ushida H, Yasuda N, Nakane K, Funahashi K, Fuke I, Takamizawa A, Ishikawa T, Yamanishi K, Takahashi M (2008) DNA sequence analysis of varicella-zoster virus gene 62 from subclinical infections in healthy children immunized with the Oka varicella vaccine. Vaccine 26(44):5627–5632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gomi Y, Sunamachi H, Mori Y, Nagaike K, Takahashi M, Yamanishi K (2002) Comparison of the complete DNA sequences of the Oka varicella vaccine and its parental virus. J Virol 76(22):11447–11459PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Guignard AP, Greenberg M, Lu C, Rosillon D, Vannappagari V (2014) Risk of herpes zoster among diabetics: a matched cohort study in a US insurance claim database before introduction of vaccination, 1997-2006. Infection 42(4):729–735. doi: 10.1007/s15010-014-0645-x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gupta G, Lautenbach E, Lewis JD (2006) Incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4(12):1483–1490. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.09.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Guthridge JM, Cogman A, Merrill JT, Macwana S, Bean KM, Powe T, Roberts V, James JA, Chakravarty EF (2013) Herpes zoster vaccination in SLE: a pilot study of immunogenicity. J Rheumatol 40(11):1875–1880. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.130170 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hales CM, Harpaz R, Joesoef MR, Bialek SR (2013) Examination of links between herpes zoster incidence and childhood varicella vaccination. Ann Intern Med 159(11):739–745. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-11-201312030-00006 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hales CM, Harpaz R, Ortega-Sanchez I, Bialek SR, Centers for Disease Control and P (2014) Update on recommendations for use of herpes zoster vaccine. MMWR 63(33):729–731PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harbecke R, Oxman MN, Arnold BA, Ip C, Johnson GR, Levin MJ, Gelb LD, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Wang H, Wright PF, Pachucki CT, Gershon AA, Arbeit RD, Davis LE, Simberkoff MS, Weinberg A, Williams HM, Cheney C, Petrukhin L, Abraham KG, Shaw A, Manoff S, Antonello JM, Green T, Wang Y, Tan C, Keller PM, Shingles Prevention SG (2009) A real-time PCR assay to identify and discriminate among wild-type and vaccine strains of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens, and comparison with the clinical diagnoses. J Med Virol 81(7):1310–1322. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21506 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hardy I, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, LaRussa P (1991) The incidence of zoster after immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine. A study in children with leukemia. Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med 325(22):1545–1550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Harpaz R, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Seward JF, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Centers for Disease Control and P (2008) Prevention of herpes zoster: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 57(RR-5):1–30 ; quiz CE32-34. doi:rr5705a1[pii]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hata A, Asanuma H, Rinki M, Sharp M, Wong RM, Blume K, Arvin AM (2002) Use of an inactivated varicella vaccine in recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants. N Engl J Med 347(1):26–34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa013441 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hata A, Inoue F, Hamamoto Y, Yamasaki M, Fujikawa J, Kawahara H, Kawasaki Y, Honjo S, Koshiyama H, Moriishi E, Mori Y, Ohkubo T (2015) Efficacy and safety of live varicella zoster vaccine in diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabet Med 33(8):1094–1101. doi: 10.1111/dme.13038 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hata A, Inoue F, Yamasaki M, Fujikawa J, Kawasaki Y, Hamamoto Y, Honjo S, Moriishi E, Mori Y, Koshiyama H (2013) Safety, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to herpes zoster vaccine in subjects with diabetes mellitus. J Infect 67(3):215–219. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.04.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hata A, Kuniyoshi M, Ohkusa Y (2011) Risk of herpes zoster in patients with underlying diseases: a retrospective hospital-based cohort study. Infection 39(6):537–544. doi: 10.1007/s15010-011-0162-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hayward AR, Buda K, Levin MJ (1994) Immune response to secondary immunization with live or inactivated VZV vaccine in elderly adults. Viral Immunol 7(1):31–36. doi: 10.1089/vim.1994.7.31 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Head H, Campbell AW (1900) The pathology of herpes zoster and its bearing on sensory localisation. Brain 23:353–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Health Protection Scotland (2016) Patient group direction template: administration of shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (live) Zostavax® Version 5.4. http://www.documents.hps.scot.nhs.uk/immunisation/patient-group-directions/pgd-zostavax-v5.4.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2016
  103. 103.
    Heymann AD, Chodick G, Karpati T, Kamer L, Kremer E, Green MS, Kokia E, Shalev V (2008) Diabetes as a risk factor for herpes zoster infection: results of a population-based study in Israel. Infection 36(3):226–230. doi: 10.1007/s15010-007-6347-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hilt DC, Buchholz D, Krumholz A, Weiss H, Wolinsky JS (1983) Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and delayed contralateral hemiparesis caused by cerebral angiitis: diagnosis and management approaches. Ann Neurol 14(5):543–553. doi: 10.1002/ana.410140509 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hope-Simpson RE (1954) Studies on Shingles: Is the virus ordinary chickenpox virus? Lancet 2:1299–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hope-Simpson RE (1965) The nature of herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis. Proc R Soc Med 58:9–20PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hope-Simpson RE (1975) Postherpetic neuralgia. J R Coll Gen Pract 25(157):571–575PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Imoto K, Okazaki A, Onishi F, Miyazaki Y, Okeda M, Yano S, Takao Y, Gomi Y, Ishikawa T, Okuno Y, Mori Y, Iso H, Yamanishi K, Asada H (2015) VZV skin-test reaction, but not antibody, is an important predictive factor for postherpetic neuralgia. J Dermatol Sci 79(3):235–240. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2015.05.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Issa NC, Marty FM, Leblebjian H, Galar A, Shea MM, Antin JH, Soiffer RJ, Baden LR (2014) Live attenuated varicella-zoster vaccine in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20(2):285–287. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jansen K, Haastert B, Michalik C, Guignard A, Esser S, Dupke S, Plettenberg A, Skaletz-Rorowski A, Brockmeyer NH (2013) Incidence and risk factors of herpes zoster among hiv-positive patients in the german competence network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet): a cohort study analysis. BMC Infect Dis 13:372. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-372 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Joesoef RM, Harpaz R, Leung J, Bialek SR (2012) Chronic medical conditions as risk factors for herpes zoster. Mayo Clin Proc 87(10):961–967. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.05.021 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Johnson RW, Rice AS (2014) Clinical practice. Postherpetic neuralgia. N Engl J Med 371(16):1526–1533. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1403062 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kawai K, Gebremeskel BG, Acosta CJ (2014) Systematic review of incidence and complications of herpes zoster: towards a global perspective. BMJ Open 4(6):e004833. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004833 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kawai K, Yawn BP, Wollan P, Harpaz R (2016) Increasing incidence of herpes zoster over a 60-year period from a population-based study. Clin Infect Dis 63(2):221–226. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Keating GM (2013) Shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (zostavax((R))): a review of its use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged >/=50 years. Drugs 73(11):1227–1244. doi: 10.1007/s40265-013-0088-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Keating GM (2016) Shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (Zostavax(®)): a review in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. BioDrugs 30(3):243–254. doi: 10.1007/s40259-016-0180-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kennedy PG, Grinfeld E, Bell JE (2000) Varicella-zoster virus gene expression in latently infected and explanted human ganglia. J Virol 74(24):11893–11898PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kennedy PG, Grinfeld E, Gow JW (1998) Latent varicella-zoster virus is located predominantly in neurons in human trigeminal ganglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(8):4658–4662PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kennedy PG, Grinfeld E, Gow JW (1999) Latent Varicella-zoster virus in human dorsal root ganglia. Virology 258(2):451–454. doi: 10.1006/viro.1999.9745 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kennedy PG, Rovnak J, Badani H, Cohrs RJ (2015) A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation. J Gen Virol 96(7):1581–1602. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.000128 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kerzner B, Murray AV, Cheng E, Ifle R, Harvey PR, Tomlinson M, Barben JL, Rarrick K, Stek JE, Chung MO, Schödel FP, Wang WW, Xu J, Chan IS, Silber JL, Schlienger K (2007) Safety and immunogenicity profile of the concomitant administration of ZOSTAVAX and inactivated influenza vaccine in adults aged 50 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc 55(10):1499–1507. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01397.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kost RG, Straus SE (1996) Postherpetic neuralgia – pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. N Engl J Med 335(1):32–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kroger AT, Atkinson WL, Marcuse EK, Pickering LK (2006) General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 55(RR-15):1–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ku CC, Padilla JA, Grose C, Butcher EC, Arvin AM (2002) Tropism of varicella-zoster virus for human tonsillar CD4(+) T lymphocytes that express activation, memory, and skin homing markers. J Virol 76(22):11425–11433PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ku CC, Zerboni L, Ito H, Graham BS, Wallace M, Arvin AM (2004) Varicella-zoster virus transfer to skin by T Cells and modulation of viral replication by epidermal cell interferon-alpha. J Exp Med 200(7):917–925. doi: 10.1084/jem.20040634 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kundratitz K (1925) Experimentelle Ubertragung von herpes zoster auf den Menschen und die Beziehungen von herpes zoster zu varicellen. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 29:516–523Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kwon HJ, Bang DW, Kim EN, Wi CI, Yawn BP, Wollan PC, Lahr BD, Ryu E, Juhn YJ (2016) Asthma as a risk factor for zoster in adults: a population-based case-control study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 137(5):1406–1412. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.10.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    LaGuardia JJ, Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH (1999) Prevalence of varicella-zoster virus DNA in dissociated human trigeminal ganglion neurons and nonneuronal cells. J Virol 73(10):8571–8577PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lal H, Cunningham AL, Godeaux O, Chlibek R, Diez-Domingo J, Hwang SJ, Levin MJ, McElhaney JE, Poder A, Puig-Barberà J, Vesikari T, Watanabe D, Weckx L, Zahaf T, Heineman TC, Group Z-S (2015) Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med 372(22):2087–2096. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1501184 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lal H, Zahaf T, Heineman TC (2013) Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su): a phase-I, open-label study in Japanese adults. Hum Vaccin Immunother 9(7):1425–1429. doi: 10.4161/hv.24269 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Langan SM, Smeeth L, Margolis DJ, Thomas SL (2013) Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness against incident herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in an older US population: a cohort study. PLoS Med 10(4):e1001420. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001420 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Langan SM, Thomas SL, Smeeth L, Margolis DJ, Nitsch D (2016) Zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction of zoster in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv432 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Leroux-Roels I, Leroux-Roels G, Clement F, Vandepapelière P, Vassilev V, Ledent E, Heineman TC (2012) A phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating safety and immunogenicity of a varicella zoster glycoprotein e subunit vaccine candidate in young and older adults. J Infect Dis 206(8):1280–1290. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis497 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Leung J, Harpaz R, Molinari NA, Jumaan A, Zhou F (2011) Herpes zoster incidence among insured persons in the United States, 1993-2006: evaluation of impact of varicella vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 52(3):332–340. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq077 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Levin MJ (2012) Immune senescence and vaccines to prevent herpes zoster in older persons. Curr Opin Immunol 24(4):494–500. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2012.06.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Levin MJ (2014) Varicella-zoster virus and virus DNA in the blood and oropharynx of people with latent or active varicella-zoster virus infections. J Clin Virol 61(4):487–495. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.09.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Levin MJ, Barber D, Goldblatt E, Jones M, LaFleur B, Chan C, Stinson D, Zerbe GO, Hayward AR (1998) Use of a live attenuated varicella vaccine to boost varicella-specific immune responses in seropositive people 55 years of age and older: duration of booster effect. J Infect Dis 178(Suppl 1):109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Levin MJ, Cai GY, Manchak MD, Pizer LI (2003) Varicella-zoster virus DNA in cells isolated from human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol 77(12):6979–6987PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Levin MJ, DeBiasi RL, Bostik V, Schmid DS (2008a) Herpes zoster with skin lesions and meningitis caused by 2 different genotypes of the Oka varicella-zoster virus vaccine. J Infect Dis 198(10):1444–1447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Levin MJ, Gershon AA, Weinberg A, Song L-Y, Fentin T, Nowak B (2006) Administration of live varicella vaccine to HIV-infected children with current or past significant depression of CD4(+) T cells. J Infect Dis 194(2):247–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Levin MJ, Murray M, Rotbart HA, Zerbe GO, White CJ, Hayward AR (1992) Immune response of elderly individuals to a live attenuated varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 166(2):253–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Levin MJ, Oxman MN, Zhang JH, Johnson GR, Stanley H, Hayward AR, Caulfield MJ, Irwin MR, Smith JG, Clair J, Chan ISF, Williams H, Harbecke R, Marchese R, Straus SE, Gershon A, Weinberg A (2008b) Varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses in elderly recipients of a herpes zoster vaccine. J Infect Dis 197(6):825–835PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Levin MJ, Schmader KE, Pang L, Williams-Diaz A, Zerbe G, Canniff J, Johnson MJ, Caldas Y, Cho A, Lang N, Su SC, Parrino J, Popmihajlov Z, Weinberg A (2016) Cellular and humoral responses to a second dose of herpes zoster vaccine administered 10 years after the first dose among older adults. J Infect Dis 213(1537-6613 (Electronic)):14–22Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Levine MJ, Ellison MC, Zerbe GO, Barber D, Chan C, Stinson D, Jones M, Hayward AR (2000) Comparison of a live attenuated and an inactivated varicella vaccine to boost the varicella-specific immune response in seropositive people 55 years of age and older. Vaccine 18(25):2915–2920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lewis GW (1958) Zoster sine herpete. Br Med J 2(5093):418–421PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lin SY, Liu JH, Lin CL, Tsai IJ, Chen PC, Chung CJ, Liu YL, Wang IK, Lin HH, Huang CC (2012) A comparison of herpes zoster incidence across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease, dialysis and transplantation. Am J Nephrol 36(1):27–33. doi: 10.1159/000339004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lindsey S (2014) Safety of zoster vaccination administration in rheumatic patients on current biologic therapy. Arthritis Rheumatol 66(10 (Supplement)):S806Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lipschutz B (1921) Untersuchungen uber die atiologie der krankheiten der herpesgruppe (herpes zoster, herpes genitalis, herpes febrilis). Arch Dermatol Syphilol (Berl) 136:428–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ljungman P, Cordonnier C, Einsele H, Englund J, Machado CM, Storek J, Small T, Research CfIBaMT, Program NMD, Group EBaMT, Transplantation ASoBaM, Group CBaMT, America IDSo, America SfHEo, Canada AoMMaID, Prevention CfDCa (2009) Vaccination of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 44 (8):521-526. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2009.263 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Long MD, Martin C, Sandler RS, Kappelman MD (2013) Increased risk of herpes zoster among 108 604 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 37(4):420–429. doi: 10.1111/apt.12182 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Loparev VN, Rubtcova E, Seward JF, Levin MJ, Schmid DS (2007) DNA sequence variability in isolates recovered from patients with postvaccination rash or herpes zoster caused by Oka varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 195(4):502–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lu PJ, O’Halloran A, Williams WW, Harpaz R (2017) National and state-specific shingles vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years. Am J Prev Med 52(3):362–372. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Luby JP, Ramierez-Ronda C, Rinner S (1977) A longitudinal study of varicella-zoster virus infections in renal transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 135(4):659–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lydick E, Epstein RS, Himmelberger D, White CJ (1995) Area under the curve: a metric for patient subjective responses in episodic diseases. Qual Life Res 4(1):41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Macaladad N, Marcano T, Guzman M, Moya J, Jurado F, Thompson M, Meechan C, Li D, Schlienger K, Chan I, Sadoff J, Schodel F, Silber JL (2007) Safety and immunogenicity of a zoster vaccine in varicella-zoster virus seronegative and low-seropositive healthy adults. Vaccine 25(11):2139–2144. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.11.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    MacIntyre CR, Egerton T, McCaughey M, Parrino J, Campbell BV, Su SC, Pagnoni MF, Stek JE, Xu J, Annunziato PW, Chan IS, Silber JL (2010) Concomitant administration of zoster and pneumococcal vaccines in adults >/=60 years old. Hum Vaccin 6(11):894–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Marin M, Yawn BP, Hales CM, Wollan PC, Bialek SR, Zhang J, Kurland MJ, Harpaz R (2015) Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status. Hum Vaccin Immunother 11(5):1157–1164. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2015.1016681 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Markus A, Lebenthal-Loinger I, Yang IH, Kinchington PR, Goldstein RS (2015) An in vitro model of latency and reactivation of varicella zoster virus in human stem cell-derived neurons. PLoS Pathog 11(6):e1004885. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004885 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    McDonald JR, Zeringue AL, Caplan L, Ranganathan P, Xian H, Burroughs TE, Fraser VJ, Cunningham F, Eisen SA (2009) Herpes zoster risk factors in a national cohort of veterans with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Infect Dis 48(10):1364–1371. doi: 10.1086/598331 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    McLaughlin JM, McGinnis JJ, Tan L, Mercatante A, Fortuna J (2015) Estimated human and economic burden of four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, 2013. J Prim Prev 36(4):259–273. doi: 10.1007/s10935-015-0394-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mehta SK, Cohrs RJ, Forghani B, Zerbe G, Gilden DH, Pierson DL (2004) Stress-induced subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in astronauts. J Med Virol 72(1):174–179. doi: 10.1002/jmv.10555 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Meier JL, Holman RP, Croen KD, Smialek JE, Straus SE (1993) Varicella-zoster virus transcription in human trigeminal ganglia. Virology 193(1):193–200. doi: 10.1006/viro.1993.1115 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Miller AE (1980) Selective decline in cellular immune response to varicella-zoster in the elderly. Neurology 30(6):582–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mills R, Tyring SK, Levin MJ, Parrino J, Li X, Coll KE, Stek JE, Schlienger K, Chan IS, Silber JL (2010) Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of zoster vaccine in subjects with a history of herpes zoster. Vaccine 28(25):4204–4209. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Moffat JF, Zerboni L, Kinchington PR, Grose C, Kaneshima H, Arvin AM (1998) Attenuation of the vaccine Oka strain of varicella-zoster virus and role of glycoprotein C in alphaherpesvirus virulence demonstrated in the SCID-hu mouse. J Virol 72(2):965–974PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mols JF, Ledent E, Heineman TC (2013) Sampling of herpes zoster skin lesion types and the impact on viral DNA detection. J Virol Methods 188(1-2):145–147. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.12.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Morrison VA, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Levin MJ, Zhang JH, Looney DJ, Betts R, Gelb L, Guatelli JC, Harbecke R, Pachucki C, Keay S, Menzies B, Griffin MR, Kauffman CA, Marques A, Toney J, Boardman K, Su SC, Li X, Chan IS, Parrino J, Annunziato P, Oxman MN, Group SPS (2015) Long-term persistence of zoster vaccine efficacy. Clin Infect Dis 60(6):900–909. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu918 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Morrison VA, Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Schmader KE, Guatelli JC, Betts RF, Gelb LD, Pachucki CT, Keay SK, Menzies B, Griffin MR, Kauffman CA, Marques AR, Toney JF, Simberkoff MS, Serrao R, Arbeit RD, Gnann JW, Greenberg RN, Holodniy M, Keitel WA, Yeh SS, Davis LE, Crawford GE, Neuzil KM, Johnson GR, Zhang JH, Harbecke R, Chan IS, Keller PM, Williams HM, Boardman KD, Silber JL, Annunziato PW, Shingles Prevention Study G (2013) Safety of zoster vaccine in elderly adults following documented herpes zoster. J Infect Dis 208(4):559–563. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit182 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Mullane KM, Winston DJ, Wertheim MS, Betts RF, Poretz DM, Camacho LH, Pergam SA, Mullane MR, Stek JE, Sterling TM, Zhao Y, Manoff SB, Annunziato PW (2013) Safety and immunogenicity of heat-treated zoster vaccine (ZVHT) in immunocompromised adults. J Infect Dis 208(9):1375–1385. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit344 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Murray AV, Reisinger KS, Kerzner B, Stek JE, Sausser TA, Xu J, Wang WW, Chan IS, Annunziato PW, Parrino J (2011) Safety and tolerability of zoster vaccine in adults >/=60 years old. Hum Vaccine 7(11):1130–1136. doi: 10.4161/hv.7.11.17982 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nagasawa K, Yamauchi Y, Tada Y, Kusaba T, Niho Y, Yoshikawa H (1990) High incidence of herpes zoster in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: an immunological analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 49(8):630–633PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Nagel MA, Choe A, Traktinskiy I, Cordery-Cotter R, Gilden D, Cohrs RJ (2011) Varicella-zoster virus transcriptome in latently infected human ganglia. J Virol 85(5):2276–2287. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01862-10 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Nagel MA, Gilden D (2014) Neurological complications of varicella zoster virus reactivation. Curr Opin Neurol 27(3):356–360. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000092 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Naidus E, Damon L, Schwartz BS, Breed C, Liu C (2012) Experience with use of Zostavax((R)) in patients with hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Am J Hematol 87(1):123–125. doi: 10.1002/ajh.22196 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Natoli S, Ciotti M, Paba P, Testore GP, Palmieri G, Orlandi A, Sabato AF, Leonardis F (2006) A novel mutation of varicella-zoster virus associated to fatal hepatitis. J Clin Virol 37(1):72–74. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2006.06.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Okuno Y, Takao Y, Miyazaki Y, Ohnishi F, Okeda M, Yano S, Kumihashi H, Gomi Y, Maeda K, Ishikawa T, Mori Y, Asada H, Iso H, Yamanishi K (2013) Assessment of skin test with varicella-zoster virus antigen for predicting the risk of herpes zoster. Epidemiol Infect 141(4):706–713. doi: 10.1017/s0950268812002671 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Otsuka T, Gomi Y, Inoue N, Uchiyama M (2009) Transmission of varicella vaccine virus, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis 15(10):1702–1703. doi: 10.3201/eid1510.090597 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Ouwendijk WJ, Choe A, Nagel MA, Gilden D, Osterhaus AD, Cohrs RJ, Verjans GM (2012) Restricted varicella-zoster virus transcription in human trigeminal ganglia obtained soon after death. J Virol 86(18):10203–10206. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01331-12 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Oxman MN (1987) Varicella and herpes zoster. In: Fitzpatrick TB (ed) Dermatology in general medicine, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, Boston, pp. 2314–2340Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Oxman MN (1995) Immunization to reduce the frequency and severity of herpes zoster and its complications. Neurology 45(12):41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Oxman MN (2000) Clinical manifestations of herpes zoster. In: Arvin AM, Gershon AA (eds) Varicella-zoster virus: virology and clinical management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 246–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Oxman MN (2010) Zoster vaccine: current status and future prospects. Clin Infect Dis 51(2):197–213. doi: 10.1086/653605 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Oxman MN, Gershon AA, Poland GA (2011) Zoster vaccine recommendations: the importance of using a clinically valid correlate of protection. Vaccine 29(20):3625–3627. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.04.019 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Gelb LD, Arbeit RD, Simberkoff MS, Gershon AA, Davis LE, Weinberg A, Boardman KD, Williams HM, Zhang JH, Peduzzi PN, Beisel CE, Morrison VA, Guatelli JC, Brooks PA, Kauffman CA, Pachucki CT, Neuzil KM, Betts RF, Wright PF, Griffin MR, Brunell P, Soto NE, Marques AR, Keay SK, Goodman RP, Cotton DJ, Gnann JW, Loutit J, Holodniy M, Keitel WA, Crawford GE, Yeh SS, Lobo Z, Toney JF, Greenberg RN, Keller PM, Harbecke R, Hayward AR, Irwin MR, Kyriakides TC, Chan CY, Chan ISF, Wang WWB, Annunziato PW, Silber JL (2005a) A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med 352(22):2271–2284PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Shingles Prevention Study G (2008) Vaccination against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):S228–S236. doi: 10.1086/522159 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Oxman MN, Schmader KE (2014) Editorial commentary: zoster vaccine in immunocompromised patients: time to reconsider current recommendations. Clin Infect Dis 59(7):920–922. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu501 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Oxman MN, Williams HM, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Zhang JH, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Gelb LD, Arbeit RD, Simberkoff MS, Annunziato PW, Chan ISF, Silber JL, Wang WWB (2005b) Efficacy of zoster vaccine according to dermatome region. Paper presented at the 45th Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC, 16–19 DecGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Perez-Farinos N, Ordobas M, Garcia-Fernandez C, Garcia-Comas L, Canellas S, Rodero I, Gutierrez-Rodriguez A, Garcia-Gutierrez J, Ramirez R (2007) Varicella and herpes zoster in Madrid, based on the Sentinel General Practitioner Network: 1997-2004. BMC Infect Dis 7:59. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-59 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Pergam SA, Forsberg CW, Boeckh MJ, Maynard C, Limaye AP, Wald A, Smith NL, Young BA (2011) Herpes zoster incidence in a multicenter cohort of solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 13(1):15–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00547.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Perry LM, Winthrop KL, Curtis JR (2014) Vaccinations for rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 16(8):431. doi: 10.1007/s11926-014-0431-x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Pevenstein SR, Williams RK, McChesney D, Mont EK, Smialek JE, Straus SE (1999) Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus genomes in human trigeminal ganglia. J Virol 73(12):10514–10518PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Public Health England (2015) Herpes zoster (shingles) immunization programme 2014/2015: Report for England. https://wwwgovuk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480254/Shingles_annual_1415pdf Accessed 14 June 2016
  193. 193.
    Public Health England (2016) Shingles (herpes zoster). The Green Book Chapter 28a v3_0 https://wwwgovuk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/503773/2905109_Green_Book_Chapter_28a_v3_0WPDF. Accessed 10 June 2016
  194. 194.
    Quinlivan M, Breuer J, Schmid DS (2011) Molecular studies of the Oka varicella vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines 10(9):1321–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Quinlivan M, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Breuer J (2005) An evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms used to differentiate vaccine and wild type strains of varicella-zoster virus. J Med Virol 75(1):174–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Quinlivan ML, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Breuer J (2004) Rashes occurring after immunization with a mixture of viruses in the Oka vaccine are derived from single clones of virus. J Infect Dis 190(4):793–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Quinlivan ML, Jensen NJ, Radford KW, Schmid DS (2012) Novel genetic variation identified at fixed loci in ORF62 of the Oka varicella vaccine and in a case of vaccine-associated herpes zoster. J Clin Microbiol 50(5):1533–1538. doi: 10.1128/JCM.06630-11 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ragozzino MW, Melton LJ 3rd, Kurland LT, Chu CP, Perry HO (1982) Population-based study of herpes zoster and its sequelae. Medicine 61(5):310–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Redman RL, Nader S, Zerboni L, Liu C, Wong RM, Brown BW, Arvin AM (1997) Early reconstitution of immunity and decreased severity of herpes zoster in bone marrow transplant recipients immunized with inactivated varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 176(3):578–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Rosenblum WI, Hadfield MG (1972) Granulomatous angiitis of the nervous system in cases of herpes zoster and lymphosarcoma. Neurology 22(4):348–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Rubin LG, Levin MJ, Ljungman P, Davies EG, Avery R, Tomblyn M, Bousvaros A, Dhanireddy S, Sung L, Keyserling H, Kang I, America IDSo (2014a) 2013 IDSA clinical practice guideline for vaccination of the immunocompromised host. Clin Infect Dis 58(3):e44–100. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit684 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Rubin LG, Levin MJ, Ljungman P, Davies EG, Avery R, Tomblyn M, Bousvaros A, Dhanireddy S, Sung L, Keyserling H, Kang I, America IDSo (2014b) 2013 IDSA clinical practice guideline for vaccination of the immunocompromised host. Clin Infect Dis 58(3):309–318. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit816 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Russell AF, Parrino J, Fisher CL, Spieler W, Stek JE, Coll KE, Su SC, Xu J, Li X, Schlienger K, Silber JL (2015) Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of zoster vaccine in subjects on chronic/maintenance corticosteroids. Vaccine 33(27):3129–3134. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.090 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Russell ML, Schopflocher DP, Svenson L, Virani SN (2007) Secular trends in the epidemiology of shingles in Alberta. Epidemiol Infect 135(6):908–913. doi: 10.1017/S0950268807007893 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sadaoka T, Depledge DP, Rajbhandari L, Venkatesan A, Breuer J, Cohen JI (2016) In vitro system using human neurons demonstrates that varicella-zoster vaccine virus is imparied for reactivation, but not latency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(17):E2403–E2412. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1522575113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Sadaoka K, Okamoto S, Gomi Y, Tanimoto T, Ishikawa T, Yoshikawa T, Asano Y, Yamanishi K, Mori Y (2008) Measurement of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity: comparison between VZV skin test and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay. J Infect Dis 198(9):1327–1333. doi: 10.1086/592219 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Santos RA, Hatfield CC, Cole NL, Padilla JA, Moffat JF, Arvin AM, Ruyechan WT, Hay J, Grose C (2000) Varicella-zoster virus gE escape mutant VZV-MSP exhibits an accelerated cell-to-cell spread phenotype in both infected cell cultures and SCID-hu mice. Virology 275(2):306–317. doi: 10.1006/viro.2000.0507 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Santos RA, Padilla JA, Hatfield C, Grose C (1998) Antigenic variation of varicella zoster virus Fc receptor gE: loss of a major B cell epitope in the ectodomain. Virology 249(1):21–31. doi: 10.1006/viro.1998.9313 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Sasadeusz J, Prince HM, Schwarer A, Szer J, Stork A, Bock HL, Povey M, Nicholson O, Innis BL (2014) Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose live attenuated varicella vaccine given to adults following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 16(6):1024–1031. doi: 10.1111/tid.12295 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Sauerbrei A, Rubtcova E, Wutzler P, Schmid DS, Loparev VN (2004) Genetic profile of an Oka varicella vaccine virus variant isolated from an infant with zoster. J Clin Microbiol 42(12):5604–5608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Sauerbrei A, Zell R, Harder M, Wutzler P (2006) Genotyping of different varicella vaccine strains. J Clin Virol 37(2):109–117. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2006.07.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Schmader KE, Johnson GR, Saddier P, Ciarleglio M, Wang WW, Zhang JH, Chan IS, Yeh SS, Levin MJ, Harbecke RM, Oxman MN, Shingles Prevention Study G (2010) Effect of a zoster vaccine on herpes zoster-related interference with functional status and health-related quality-of-life measures in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 58(9):1634–1641. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03021.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Schmader KE, Levin MJ, Gnann JW Jr, McNeil SA, Vesikari T, Betts RF, Keay S, Stek JE, Bundick ND, Su SC, Zhao Y, Li X, Chan IS, Annunziato PW, Parrino J (2012a) Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of herpes zoster vaccine in persons aged 50-59 years. Clin Infect Dis 54(7):922–928. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir970 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Schmader KE, Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson G, Zhang JH, Betts R, Morrison VA, Gelb L, Guatelli JC, Harbecke R, Pachucki C, Keay S, Menzies B, Griffin MR, Kauffman C, Marques A, Toney J, Keller PM, Li X, Chan IS, Annunziato P, Shingles Prevention Study G (2012b) Persistence of the efficacy of zoster vaccine in the shingles prevention study and the short-term persistence substudy. Clin Infect Dis 55(10):1320–1328. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis638 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Schmader KE, Sloane R, Pieper C, Coplan PM, Nikas A, Saddier P, Chan IS, Choo P, Levin MJ, Johnson G, Williams HM, Oxman MN (2007) The impact of acute herpes zoster pain and discomfort on functional status and quality of life in older adults. Clin J Pain 23(6):490–496. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318065b6c9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Schmid DS (2010) Varicella-zoster virus vaccine: molecular genetics. In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Varicella-zoster virus, vol 342. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 323–340. doi: 10.1007/82_2010_14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Selariu A, Cheng T, Tang Q, Silver B, Yang L, Liu C, Ye X, Markus A, Goldstein RS, Cruz-Cosme RS, Lin Y, Wen L, Qian H, Han J, Dulal K, Huang Y, Li Y, Xia N, Zhu H (2012) ORF7 of varicella-zoster virus is a neurotropic factor. J Virol 86(16):8614–8624. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00128-12 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sen N, Mukherjee G, Sen A, Bendall SC, Sung P, Nolan GP, Arvin AM (2014) Single-cell mass cytometry analysis of human tonsil T cell remodeling by varicella zoster virus. Cell Rep 8(2):633–645PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Shafran SD (2016) Live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine for HIV-infected adults. HIV Med 17(4):305–310. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Simberkoff MS, Arbeit RD, Johnson GR, Oxman MN, Boardman KD, Williams HM, Levin MJ, Schmader KE, Gelb LD, Keay S, Neuzil K, Greenberg RN, Griffin MR, Davis LE, Morrison VA, Annunziato PW, Shingles Prevention Study G (2010) Safety of herpes zoster vaccine in the shingles prevention study: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 152(9):545–554. doi: 10.1059/0003-4819-152-9-201005040-00004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Smitten AL, Choi HK, Hochberg MC, Suissa S, Simon TA, Testa MA, Chan KA (2007) The risk of herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the United States and the United Kingdom. Arthritis Rheum 57(8):1431–1438. doi: 10.1002/art.23112 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Stadtmauer EA, Sullivan KM, Marty FM, Dadwal SS, Papanicolaou GA, Shea TC, Mossad SB, Andreadis C, Young JA, Buadi FK, El Idrissi M, Heineman TC, Berkowitz EM (2014) A phase 1/2 study of an adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit vaccine in autologous hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Blood 124(19):2921–2929. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-04-573048 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Stern ES (1937) The mechanism of herpes zoster and its relation to chicken-pox. Br J Dermatol 49:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Strangfeld A, Listing J, Herzer P, Liebhaber A, Rockwitz K, Richter C, Zink A (2009) Risk of herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF-alpha agents. JAMA 301(7):737–744. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.146 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Straus SE, Oxman MN (1999) Varicella and herpes zoster. In: Fitzpatrick TB et al (eds) Dermatology in general medicine, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp. 2427–2450Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Straus SE, Reinhold W, Smith HA, Ruyechan WT, Henderson DK, Blaese RM, Hay J (1984) Endonuclease analysis of viral DNA from varicella and subsequent zoster infections in the same patient. N Engl J Med 311(21):1362–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Suaya JA, Chen SY, Li Q, Burstin SJ, Levin MJ (2014) Incidence of herpes zoster and persistent post-zoster pain in adults with or without diabetes in the United States. Open Forum Infect Dis 1(2):ofu049. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofu049 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Sutradhar SC, Wang WW, Schlienger K, Stek JE, Xu J, Chan IS, Silber JL (2009) Comparison of the levels of immunogenicity and safety of Zostavax in adults 50 to 59 years old and in adults 60 years old or older. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16(5):646–652. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00407-08 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Takahashi M (1986) Clinical overview of varicella vaccine: development and early studies. Pediatrics 78(4 Pt 2):736–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Takahashi M, Asano Y, Kamiya H, Baba K, Ozaki T, Otsuka T, Yamanishi K (2008) Development of varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Takahashi M, Iketani T, Sasada K, Hara J, Kamiya H, Asano Y, Baba K, Shiraki K (1992) Immunization of the elderly and patients with collagen vascular diseases with live varicella vaccine and use of varicella skin antigen. J Infect Dis 166(Suppl 1):58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Takahashi M, Okada S, Miyagawa H, Amo K, Yoshikawa K, Asada H, Kamiya H, Torigoe S, Asano Y, Ozaki T, Terada K, Muraki R, Higa K, Iwasaki H, Akiyama M, Takamizawa A, Shiraki K, Yanagi K, Yamanishi K (2003) Enhancement of immunity against VZV by giving live varicella vaccine to the elderly assessed by VZV skin test and IAHA, gpELISA antibody assay. Vaccine 21(25-26):3845–3853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Takahashi M, Okuno Y, Otsuka T, Osame J, Takamizawa A (1975) Development of a live attenuated varicella vaccine. Biken J 18(1):25–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Takahashi M, Otsuka T, Okuno Y, Asano Y, Yazaki T (1974) Live vaccine used to prevent the spread of varicella in children in hospital. Lancet 2(7892):1288–1290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Takao Y, Miyazaki Y, Onishi F, Kumihashi H, Gomi Y, Ishikawa T, Okuno Y, Mori Y, Asada H, Yamanishi K, Iso H (2012) The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study: rationale, design, and description of a prospective cohort study. J Epidemiol 22(2):167–174PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Tang H, Moriishi E, Okamoto S, Okuno Y, Iso H, Asada H, Yamanishi K, Mori Y (2012) A community-based survey of varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses in the elderly. J Clin Virol 55(1):46–50. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2012.06.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Thiele S, Borschewski A, Küchler J, Bieberbach M, Voigt S, Ehlers B (2011) Molecular analysis of varicella vaccines and varicella-zoster virus from vaccine-related skin lesions. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18(7):1058–1066. doi: 10.1128/CVI.05021-11 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Tillieux SL, Halsey WS, Thomas ES, Voycik JJ, Sathe GM, Vassilev V (2008) Complete DNA sequences of two oka strain varicella-zoster virus genomes. J Virol 82(22):11023–11044. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00777-08 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Tipples GA, Stephens GM, Sherlock C, Bowler M, Hoy B, Cook D, Grose C (2002) New variant of varicella-zoster virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8(12):1504–1505. doi: 10.3201/eid0812.020118 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Toyama N, Shiraki K, Dermatologists SotMP (2009) Epidemiology of herpes zoster and its relationship to varicella in Japan: a 10-year survey of 48,388 herpes zoster cases in Miyazaki prefecture. J Med Virol 81(12):2053–2058. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21599 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Trannoy E, Berger R, Hollander G, Bailleux F, Heimendinger P, Vuillier D, Creusvaux H (2000) Vaccination of immunocompetent elderly subjects with a live attenuated Oka strain of varicella zoster virus: a randomized, controlled, dose-response trial. Vaccine 18(16):1700–1706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Tsai SY, Lin CL, Wong YC, Yang TY, Kuo CF, Cheng JM, Wang JS, Kao CH (2015) Increased risk of herpes zoster following dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore) 94(28):e1138. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Tseng HF, Chi M, Smith N, Marcy SM, Sy LS, Jacobsen SJ (2012a) Herpes zoster vaccine and the incidence of recurrent herpes zoster in an immunocompetent elderly population. J infect Dis 206(2):190–196. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis334 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Tseng HF, Harpaz R, Luo Y, Hales CM, Sy LS, Tartof SY, Bialek S, Hechter RC, Jacobsen SJ (2016a) Declining effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccine in adults aged ≥60 years. J Infect Dis 213(12):1872–1875. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Tseng HF, Lewin B, Hales CM, Sy LS, Harpaz R, Bialek S, Luo Y, Jacobsen SJ, Reddy K, Huang PY, Zhang J, Anand S, Bauer EM, Chang J, Tartof SY (2015) Zoster vaccine and the risk of postherpetic neuralgia in patients who developed herpes zoster despite having received the zoster vaccine. J Infect Dis 212(8):1222–1231. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv244 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Tseng HF, Liu A, Sy L, Marcy SM, Fireman B, Weintraub E, Baggs J, Weinmann S, Baxter R, Nordin J, Daley MF, Jackson L, Jacobsen SJ, Vaccine Safety Datalink T (2012b) Safety of zoster vaccine in adults from a large managed-care cohort: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study. J Intern Med 271(5):510–520. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02474.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Tseng HF, Luo Y, Shi J, Sy LS, Tartof SY, Sim JJ, Hechter RC, Jacobsen SJ (2016b) Effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccine in patients 60 years and older with end-stage renal disease. Clin Infect Dis 62(4):462–467. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ930 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Tseng HF, Schmid DS, Harpaz R, LaRussa P, Jensen NJ, Rivailler P, Radford K, Folster J, Jacobsen SJ (2014a) Herpes zoster caused by vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus in an immunocompetent recipient of zoster vaccine. Clin Infect Dis 58(8):1125–1128. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu058 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Tseng HF, Smith N, Harpaz R, Bialek SR, Sy LS, Jacobsen SJ (2011a) Herpes zoster vaccine in older adults and the risk of subsequent herpes zoster disease. JAMA 305(2):160–166. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1983 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Tseng HF, Smith N, Sy LS, Jacobsen SJ (2011b) Evaluation of the incidence of herpes zoster after concomitant administration of zoster vaccine and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Vaccine 29(20):3628–3632. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.03.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Tseng HF, Tartof S, Harpaz R, Luo Y, Sy LS, Hetcher RC, Jacobsen SJ (2014b) Vaccination against zoster remains effective in older adults who later undergo chemotherapy. Clin Infect Dis 59(7):913–919. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu498 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Tsigrelis C, Ljungman P (2016) Vaccinations in patients with hematological malignancies. Blood Rev 30(2):139–147. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2015.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Tyzzer EE (1906) The histology of the skin lesions in varicella. Philippine J Sci 1(4):349–375Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Vandepapelière P, Horsmans Y, Moris P, Van Mechelen M, Janssens M, Koutsoukos M, Van Belle P, Clement F, Hanon E, Wettendorff M, Garçon N, Leroux-Roels G (2008) Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine 26(10):1375–1386. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.12.038 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Veetil BM, Myasoedova E, Matteson EL, Gabriel SE, Green AB, Crowson CS (2013) Incidence and time trends of herpes zoster in rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 65(6):854–861. doi: 10.1002/acr.21928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Vermeulen JN, Lange JM, Tyring SK, Peters PH, Nunez M, Poland G, Levin MJ, Freeman C, Chalikonda I, Li J, Smith JG, Caulfield MJ, Stek JE, Chan IS, Vessey R, Schodel FP, Annunziato PW, Schlienger K, Silber JL (2012) Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity after 1 and 2 doses of zoster vaccine in healthy adults >/=60 years of age. Vaccine 30(5):904–910. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.096 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Vesikari T, Hardt R, Rumke HC, Icardi G, Montero J, Thomas S, Sadorge C, Fiquet A (2013) Immunogenicity and safety of a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (Zostavax(R)) in individuals aged >/= 70 years: a randomized study of a single dose vs. two different two-dose schedules. Hum Vaccine Immunotherap 9(4):858–864. doi: 10.4161/hv.23412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    von Bokay J (1909) Über den ätiologischen zusammenhang der varizellen mit gewissen fallen von herpes zoster. Wien Klin Wochenschr 22:1323–1326Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Wang K, Lau TY, Morales M, Mont EK, Straus SE (2005) Laser-capture microdissection: refining estimates of the quantity and distribution of latent herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus DNA in human trigeminal Ganglia at the single-cell level. J Virol 79(22):14079–14087. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.22.14079-14087.2005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Ware J, Kosinski M, Keller SD (1996) A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Med Care 34(3):220–233PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Watson CP, Deck JH, Morshead C, Van der Kooy D, Evans RJ (1991) Post-herpetic neuralgia: further post-mortem studies of cases with and without pain. Pain 44(2):105–117 doi:0304-3959(91)90124-G [pii]PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Watson CP, Morshead C, Van der Kooy D, Deck J, Evans RJ (1988) Post-herpetic neuralgia: post-mortem analysis of a case. Pain 34(2):129–138PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Weibel RE, Neff BJ, Kuter BJ, Guess HA, Rothenberger CA, Fitzgerald AJ, Connor KA, McLean AA, Hilleman MR, Buynak EB (1984) Live attenuated varicella virus vaccine. Efficacy trial in healthy children. N Engl J Med 310(22):1409–1415PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Weinberg A, Levin MJ, Macgregor RR (2010) Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated varicella vaccine in VZV-seropositive HIV-infected adults. Hum Vaccin 6(4):318–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Weinberg A, Zhang JH, Oxman MN, Johnson GR, Hayward AR, Caulfield MJ, Irwin MR, Clair J, Smith JG, Stanley H, Marchese RD, Harbecke R, Williams HM, Chan IS, Arbeit RD, Gershon AA, Schodel F, Morrison VA, Kauffman CA, Straus SE, Schmader KE, Davis LE, Levin MJ, Investigators USDoVACSPSPS (2009) Varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses to herpes zoster in elderly participants in a trial of a clinically effective zoster vaccine. J Infect Dis 200(7):1068–1077. doi: 10.1086/605611 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Weinmann S, Chun C, Schmid DS, Roberts M, Vandermeer M, Riedlinger K, Bialek SR, Marin M (2013) Incidence and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster among children in the varicella vaccine era, 2005-2009. J Infect Dis 208(11):1859–1868. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit405 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Weller TH (1983a) Varicella and herpes zoster. Changing concepts of the natural history, control, and importance of a not-so-benign virus. N Engl J Med 309(22):1362–1368. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198312013092205 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Weller TH (1983b) Varicella and herpes zoster. Changing concepts of the natural history, control, and importance of a not-so-benign virus. N Engl J Med 309(23):1434–1440. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198312083092306 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Weller TH, Witton HM (1958) The etiologic agents of varicella and herpes zoster; serologic studies with the viruses as propagated in vitro. J Exp Med 108(6):869–890PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Weller TH, Witton HM, Bell EJ (1958) The etiologic agents of varicella and herpes zoster; isolation, propagation, and cultural characteristics in vitro. J Exp Med 108(6):843–868PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Whitley RJ (2015) Editorial commentary: waning efficacy of the herpes zoster vaccine. Clin Infect Dis 60(6):910–911. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu922 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Whitley RJ, Shukla S, Crooks RJ (1998) The identification of risk factors associated with persistent pain following herpes zoster. J Infect Dis 178(Suppl 1):S71–S75PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Williams WW, Lu PJ, O’Halloran A, Kim DK, Grohskopf LA, Pilishvili T, Skoff TH, Nelson NP, Harpaz R, Markowitz LE, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Bridges CB (2016) Surveillance of vaccination coverage among adult populations – United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summ 65(1):1–36. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6501a1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Winthrop KL, Furst DE (2010) Rheumatoid arthritis and herpes zoster: risk and prevention in those treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. Ann Rheum Dis 69(10):1735–1737. doi: 10.1136/ard.2010.133843 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Wirgart BZ, Estrada V, Jackson W, Linde A, Grose C (2006) A novel varicella-zoster virus gE mutation discovered in two Swedish isolates. J Clin Virol 37(2):134–136. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2006.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    World Health Organization (2014) Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 89(25):265–288Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Wu MY, Hsu YH, Su CL, Lin YF, Lin HW (2012) Risk of herpes zoster in CKD: a matched-cohort study based on administrative data. Am J Kidney Dis 60(4):548–552. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.03.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Yamanishi K (2008) Molecular analysis of the Oka vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis 197(Suppl 2):S45–S48. doi: 10.1086/522122 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Yang YW, Chen YH, Wang KH, Wang CY, Lin HW (2011) Risk of herpes zoster among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study. CMAJ 183(5):E275–E280. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101137 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Yao CA, Chen LK, Huang KC (2015) The immunogenicity and safety of zoster vaccine in Taiwanese adults. Vaccine 33(13):1515–1517. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.085 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Yawn BP, Saddier P, Wollan PC, St Sauver JL, Kurland MJ, Sy LS (2007) A population-based study of the incidence and complication rates of herpes zoster before zoster vaccine introduction. Mayo Clin Proc 82(11):1341–1349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Yawn BP, Wollan PC, Kurland MJ, St Sauver JL, Saddier P (2011) Herpes zoster recurrences more frequent than previously reported. Mayo Clin Proc 86(2):88–93. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2010.0618 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Yun H, Yang S, Chen L, Xie F, Winthrop K, Baddley JW, Saag KG, Singh J, Curtis JR (2016) Risk of herpes zoster in auto-immune and inflammatory diseases: implications for vaccination. Arthritis Rheumatol 68(9):2328–2337. doi: 10.1002/art.39670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Zerboni L, Sen N, Oliver SL, Arvin AM (2014) Molecular mechanisms of varicella zoster virus pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol 12(3):197–210. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3215 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Zhang J, Delzell E, Xie F, Baddley JW, Spettell C, McMahan RM, Fernandes J, Chen L, Winthrop K, Curtis JR (2011) The use, safety, and effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination in individuals with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases: a longitudinal observational study. Arthritis Res Ther 13(5):R174. doi: 10.1186/ar3497 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Zhang J, Xie F, Delzell E, Chen L, Winthrop KL, Lewis JD, Saag KG, Baddley JW, Curtis JR (2012) Association between vaccination for herpes zoster and risk of herpes zoster infection among older patients with selected immune-mediated diseases. JAMA 308(1):43–49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.7304 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Zhao Y, Yang L, Wang X, Zhou Z (2014) The new insights from DPP-4 inhibitors: their potential immune modulatory function in autoimmune diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 30(8):646–653. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2530 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Medicine ServiceInfectious Diseases Section, VA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  4. 4.Research ServiceVA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations