Transcutaneous Laryngeal Ultrasonography: Technical Performance and Interpretation

  • Denise Carneiro-PlaEmail author


Vocal cord ultrasound (VCUS) has been shown accurate in demonstrating vocal cord paralysis with a sensitivity of 93–100 % and specificity ranging from 97 to 100 % when performed by surgeons. Although flexible laryngoscopy (FL) is considered the gold standard for vocal cord mobility evaluation, laryngeal ultrasonography can substitute FL in most patients requiring preoperative vocal cord function evaluation as long as the vocal folds can be well visualized on cervical ultrasound.


Vocal cord function Vocal cord mobility Vocal cord ultrasound Laryngeal ultrasound Transcutaneous ultrasonography Vocal cord paralysis Vocal fold paresis 

Supplementary material

Video 32.1

Laryngeal anatomy on ultrasonography (MP4 10,307 kb)

Video 32.2

Visualization of structures (MP4 2646 kb)

Video 32.3

Demonstrates the orientation of direct laryngoscopy and VC ultrasound (MP4 4361 kb)

Video 32.4

Clips shows vocal folds during Valsalva (MP4 28,188 kb)

Video 32.5

VC realtime (MP4 45,191 kb)

Video 32.6

Shows a right vocal cord paralysis on vocal cord ultrasonography. (MP4 50,942 kb)

Video 32.7

Shows a left vocal cord paralysis on VCUS (MP4 45,586 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Oncologic & Endocrine Surgery, Department of SurgeryMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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