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Management of Acute Heart Failure

  • Gregory T. MeansEmail author
  • Jason N. Katz
Chapter

Abstract

Acute heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome that results from impaired cardiac performance, either in the setting of preserved or reduced contractile function. A systematic history and physical examination is needed to rapidly diagnose acute heart failure, as prompt diagnosis and treatment are required to avoid progressive hemodynamic and sometimes electrical decompensation, which can result in shock or death. While the mainstay of acute therapy includes diuretics and vasodilators, more refractory cases can require inotropes or mechanical circulatory support.

Keywords

Heart failure Cardiogenic shock Diuretic Balloon pump Vasodilators Inotropes Mechanical circulatory support Pulmonary artery catheter Nesiritide Ultrafiltration 

Supplementary material

Video 11.1

Echocardiogram. An example of systolic congestive heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 15 %, as seen on echocardiogram (AVI 1342 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiology, Department of MedicineUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Medicine, Mechanical Heart Program, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit & Critical Care Service, Cardiovascular Clinical TrialsUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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