Vitrification: Methods Contributing to Successful Cryopreservation Outcomes

  • James J. Stachecki


The only method of stable and long-term preservation of perishable biological materials is to keep them in the glassy (vitreous) state. Embryo and gamete storage has come far since the discovery of glycerol, to the successful cryopreservation of mouse embryos, to modern ultra rapid cooling techniques. Pioneering studies in animal models, along with new innovative ideas, hold the key to more breakthroughs. Emerging methods of kinetic vitrification and more robust meta-stable solutions will lead us into the future. Although we have been successful in storing human embryos and gametes, there is a lot we do not understand. Not all cells survive storage, and not every embryo that does successfully develops. Factors affecting outcomes include embryo quality, patient demographics, culture conditions, vitrification, uterine preparation, and embryo transfer. Among these synchronization of the uterus with proper P4 dosage and timing is critical for a successful pregnancy.


Vitrification Cryopreservation Progesterone Uterine preparation Pregnancy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • James J. Stachecki
    • 1
  1. 1.Innovative Cryo Enterprises LLCLindenUSA

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