Ultrasound and MRI
In most children suffering from urinary incontinence, additional imaging studies are not necessary. Children with enuresis most often have no structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, and an extensive history, physical examination, as well as bladder and bowel diary will be adequate for making the diagnosis and starting subsequent treatment. In children with daytime symptoms, the same is true, but determining post-void residual urine following flowmetry using ultrasound may be helpful. When these children also have urinary tract infections, especially when accompanied with fever, additional imaging studies are required. In this chapter the different indications for ultrasound as well as MRI will be discussed. Especially when an ectopic ureter, a urethral diverticulum in women, or vesicovaginal fistula is suspected an MRI is the diagnostic modality of choice.