The term “bowel dysfunction” includes constipation, diarrhoea and faecal incontinence.
Bladder bowel dysfunction (BBD) is a generic expression to describe children with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with intestinal dysfunction. The International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS) recommends the use of the Rome III Criteria for the diagnosis of functional disorders of evacuation in children. The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) is a practical tool utilized for the diagnosis and for the evaluation of the treatment response. Faecal incontinence has a considerable impact in children’s quality of life (QoL). The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) developed different guidelines for treatment of constipation in infants and children.
Treatment requires a comprehensive programme, including the use of laxatives, toilet training, a proper diet, transanal irrigation and Malone Anterograde Continence Enemas (MACE). All these different approaches, conservatives or surgical, can be combined for a better efficacy and tailored on a single patient.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Abi-Hanna A, Lake AM. Constipation and encopresis in childhood. Pediatr Rev. 1998;19(1):23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Loening-Baucke V. Urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection and their resolution with treatment of chronic constipation of childhood. Pediatrics. 1997;100(2, Part 1):228–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Burgers RE, Mugie SM, Chase J, Cooper CS, von Gontard A, et al. Management of functional constipation in children with lower urinary tract symptoms: report from the standardization committee of the International children’s continence society. J Urol. 2013;190:29–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Issenman RM, Filmer RB, Gorski PA. A review of bowel and bladder control development in children: how gastrointestinal and urologic conditions relate to problems in toilet training. Pediatrics. 1999;103(6, Part 2):1346–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Solzi G, Di Lorenzo C. Are constipated children different from constipated adults? Dig Dis. 1999;17(5–6):308–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Klijn AJ, Asselman M, Vijverberg MAW, Dik P, de Jong TPVM. The diameter of the rectum on ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool for constipation in children with dysfunctional voiding. J Urol. 2004;172(5, Part 1):1986–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, et al. Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58:258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Brazzelli M, Griffiths PV, Cody JD, Tappin D. Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for the management of faecal incontinence in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;12:CD002240.Google Scholar
Loening-Baucke V. Controversies in the management of chronic constipation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;32(Suppl 1):S38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Brooks RC, Copen RM, Cox DJ, et al. Review of the treatment literature for encopresis, functional constipation, and stool-toileting refusal. Ann Behav Med. 2000;22:260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Abrams P, Andersson KE, Birder L, Brubaker L, Cardozo L, Chapple C, et al. Members of Committees, Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence. Fourth international consultation on incontinence recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29:213–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Dos Santos J, Varghese A, Williams K, Koyle MA. Recommendations for the management of bladder bowel dysfunction in children. Pediat Therapeut. 2014;4:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen P, Bazzocchi G, Coggrave M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of transanal irrigation versus conservative bowel management in spinal cord-injured patients. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:738–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar