Anatomy and Neurophysiology of the Lower Urinary Tract and Pelvic Floor

  • Lotte Kaasgaard JakobsenEmail author
  • Jens Christian Djurhuus
  • L. Henning Olsen
Part of the Urodynamics, Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions book series (UNPFD)


With prime focus on the anatomy, neurophysiology and functional properties, this chapter overviews the development of the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor. Coordinating bladder function with sphincter and pelvic floor function is a highly complex physiological process. Currently urodynamic studies are probably our best method of evaluating this complex process. However, we face big challenges dealing with a sophisticated system in constant development, tested in a complex setting with numerous variables. These count precarious psychological aspects as well as the basic physical aspects of filling rate, medium, temperature, pressure/flow analysis methods and where to place the electrodes. In this chapter we elaborate on the variability of findings, even within normal subjects. These are extremely important to keep in mind and will force you to interpret investigative results, especially in paediatric urodynamics, with humility.


Urinary tract development Lower urinary tract Bladder Urethra Pelvic floor Voiding Urethral sphincter Bladder capacity Urodynamic studies Continence Innervation Urinary flow curves 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jens Christian Djurhuus
    • 2
  • L. Henning Olsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Urology, Section of Pediatric UrologyAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Clinical MedicineAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark

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