Advertisement

US Contrast Media in Prostatic Disease

  • Vincenzo ScattoniEmail author
  • Carmen Maccagnano
Chapter

Abstract

Transrectal ultrasonography has widely been used for evaluating the prostate and guiding biopsy: nevertheless, it has been shown that transrectal ultrasonography has limited value for detecting prostate cancer (PCa) owing to its unsatisfactory sensitivity and variable accuracy. Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography that can enhance the visualization of perfusion changes related to prostate cancer is regarded as a promising tool for improving the detection of prostate cancer. It has the potential to perform lesion-targeted biopsy that may ultimately improve the detection of prostate cancer. Several studies have shown that contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies may have a significantly higher positive per core detection rate (DR) and significantly higher mean Gleason score cancer detection rate compared with systematic biopsy. Nevertheless, future randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm the value of contrast-enhanced-targeted transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in regular clinical practice.

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Gleason Score Prostate Biopsy Transrectal Ultrasonography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

Video 53.1

The video shows a progressive enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast medium. An increasing vascularization in the left peripheral zone is particularly evident (image on the left). The image on the right in B with low mechanic index demonstrates a hypoechoic area in US with gray scale. The pathologic exam confirmed a cancer in the identified lesion. (WMV 1341 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Cosgrove D (2006) Ultrasound contrast agents: an overview. Eur J Radiol 60(3):324–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quaia E, D’Onofrio M, Cabassa P, Vecchiato F, Caffarri S, Pittiani F, Wittkowski KM, Cova MA (2007) Diagnostic value of hepatocellular nodule vascularity after microbubble injection for characterizing malignancy in patients with cirrhosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 189(6):1474–1483CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burns PN, Wilson SR (2006) Microbubble contrast for radiological imaging: 1 principles. Ultrasound Q 22(1):5–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ma F, Cang Y, Zhao B, Liu Y, Wang C, Liu B, Wu T, Song Y, Peng A (2012) Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with SonoVue could accurately assess the renal microvascular perfusion in diabetic kidney damage. Nephrol Dial Transplant 27(7):2891–2898CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Halpern EJ, Gomella LG, Forsberg F, McCue PA, Trabulsi EJ (2012) Contrast enhanced transrectal ultrasound for the detection of prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind trial of dutasteride pretreatment. J Urol 188(5):1739–1745CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frauscher F, Klauser A, Halpern EJ, Horninger W, Bartsch G (2001) Detection of prostate cancer with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. Lancet 357(9271):1849–1850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mitterberger M, Aigner F, Pinggera GM, Steiner E, Rehder P, Ulmer H, Halpern EJ, Horninger W, Frauscher F (2010) Contrast-enhanced colour Doppler-targeted prostate biopsy: correlation of a subjective blood-flow rating scale with the histopathological outcome of the biopsy. BJU Int 106(9):1315–1318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Y, Tang J, Fei X, Gao Y (2013) Diagnostic performance of contrast enhanced ultrasound in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Acad Radiol 20(2):156–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    van Hove A, Savoie PH, Maurin C, Brunelle S, Gravis G, Salem N, Walz J (2014) Comparison of image-guided targeted biopsies versus systematic randomized biopsies in the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic literature review of well-designed studies. World J Urol 32(4):847–858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roy C, Buy X, Lang H, Saussine C, Jacqmin D (2003) Contrast enhanced color Doppler endorectal sonography of prostate: efficiency for detecting peripheral zone tumors and role for biopsy procedure. J Urol 170(1):69–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Newman JS, Bree RL, Rubin JM (1995) Prostate cancer: diagnosis with color Doppler sonography with histologic correlation of each biopsy site. Radiology 195(1):86–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhao HX, Xia CX, Yin HX, Guo N, Zhu Q (2013) The value and limitations of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of prostate cancer. Eur J Radiol 82(11):e641–e647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jack GS, Cookson MS, Coffey CS, Vader V, Roberts RL, Chang SS, Smith JA Jr, Shappell SB (2002) Pathological parameters of radical prostatectomy for clinical stages T1c versus T2 prostate adenocarcinoma: decreased pathological stage and increased detection of transition zone tumors. J Urol 168(2):519–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bono AV, Celato N, Cova V, Salvadore M, Chinetti S, Novario R (2002) Microvessel density in prostate carcinoma. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 5(2):123–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yi A, Kim JK, Park SH, Kim KW, Kim HS, Kim JH, Eun HW, Cho KS (2006) Contrast-enhanced sonography for prostate cancer detection in patients with indeterminate clinical findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 186(5):1431–1435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van Niekerk CG, Witjes JA, Barentsz JO, van der Laak JA, Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA (2013) Microvascularity in transition zone prostate tumors resembles normal prostatic tissue. Prostate 73(5):467–475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sano F, Terao H, Kawahara T, Miyoshi Y, Sasaki T, Noguchi K, Kubota Y, Uemura H (2011) Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the prostate: various imaging findings that indicate prostate cancer. BJU Int 107(9):1404–1410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Uemura H, Sano F, Nomiya A, Yamamoto T, Nakamura M, Miyoshi Y, Miki K, Noguchi K, Egawa S, Homma Y, Kubota Y (2013) Usefulness of perflubutane microbubble-enhanced ultrasound in imaging and detection ofprostate cancer: phase II multicenter clinical trial. World J Urol 31(5):1123–1128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sedelaar JP, van Leenders GJ, Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA, van der Poel HG, van der Laak JA, Debruyne FM, Wijkstra H, de la Rosette JJ (2001) Microvessel density: correlation between contrast ultrasonography and histology of prostatecancer. Eur Urol 40(3):285–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fischer T, Thomas A, Tardy I, Schneider M, Hünigen H, Custodis P, Beyersdorff D, Plendl J, Schnorr J, Diekmann F, Gemeinhardt O (2010) Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-specific microbubbles for molecular ultrasound detection ofprostate cancer in a rat model. Invest Radiol 45(10):675–684CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perner S, Hofer MD, Kim R, Shah RB, Li H, Möller P, Hautmann RE, Gschwend JE, Kuefer R, Rubin MA (2007) Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression as a predictor of prostate cancer progression. Hum Pathol 38(5):696–701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang L, Li L, Guo Y, Tong H, Fan X, Ding J, Huang H (2013) Construction and in vitro/in vivo targeting of PSMA-targeted nanoscale microbubbles in prostate cancer. Prostate 73(11):1147–1158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jiang J, Chen YQ, Zhu YK, Yao XH, Qi J (2012) Factors influencing the degree of enhancement of prostate cancer on contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography: correlation with biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens. Br J Radiol 85(1019):e979–e986CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bertolotto M, Trincia E, Zappetti R, Bernich R, Savoca G, Cova MA (2009) Effect of Tadalafil on prostate haemodynamics: preliminary evaluation with contrast-enhanced US. Radiol Med 114(7):1106–1114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Strohmeyer D, Rössing C, Bauerfeind A, Kaufmann O, Schlechte H, Bartsch G, Loening S (2000) Vascular endothelial growth factor and its correlation with angiogenesis and p53 expression in prostate cancer. Prostate 45(3):216–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weingärtner K, Ben-Sasson SA, Stewart R, Richie JP, Riedmiller H, Folkman J (1998) Endothelial cell proliferation activity in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: an in vitro model for assessment. J Urol 159(2):465–470CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shi J, Yin X, Xu R, Wang Y, Jin L, Gao W (2014) Clinical application of contrast enhanced ultrasound to diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia. Diagn Pathol 9:133CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Qi T, Chen Y, Zhu Y, Jiang J, Wang L, Qi J (2014) Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography for detection and localization of prostate index tumor: correlation with radical prostatectomy findings. Urology 84(1):138–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ahmed HU (2009) The index lesion and the origin of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 361(17):1704–1706CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bott SR, Ahmed HU, Hindley RG, Abdul-Rahman A, Freeman A, Emberton M (2010) The index lesion and focal therapy: an analysis of the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. BJU Int 106(11):1607–1611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Karavitakis M, Winkler M, Abel P, Livni N, Beckley I, Ahmed HU (2011) Histological characteristics of the index lesion in whole-mount radical prostatectomy specimens: implications for focal therapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 14(1):46–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Russo G, Mischi M, Scheepens W, De la Rosette JJ, Wijkstra H (2012) Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging. BJU Int 110(11 Pt C):E794–E808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xie SW, Li HL, Du J, Xia JG, Guo YF, Xin M, Li FH (2013) Influence of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, and PSA density on prostate cancer detection with contrast-enhanced sonography using contrast-tuned imaging technology. J Ultrasound Med 32(5):741–748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xie SW, Li HL, Du J, Xia JG, Guo YF, Xin M, Li FH (2012) Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with contrast-tuned imaging technology for the detection of prostate cancer: comparison with conventional ultrasonography. BJU Int 109(11):1620–1626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Strazdina A, Krumina G, Sperga M (2011) The value and limitations of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detection of prostate cancer. Anticancer Res 31(4):1421–1426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rosoff JS, Prasad SM, Savage SJ (2013) Ultrasound in prostate cancer: current roles and potential applications in radiorecurrent disease. World J Urol 31(6):1353–1359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rouvière O, Glas L, Girouin N, Mège-Lechevallier F, Gelet A, Dantony E, Rabilloud M, Chapelon JY, Lyonnet D (2011) Prostate cancer ablation with transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound: assessment of tissue destruction with contrast-enhanced US. Radiology 259(2):583–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity Vita-Salute, Scientific Institute H San RaffaeleMilanItaly
  2. 2.Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna –Como-San Fermo della Battaglia (Co)Italy

Personalised recommendations