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Nerve Cases pp 151-168 | Cite as

Examination of the Lower Limb

  • Amgad S. Hanna

Abstract

Muscles are tested and graded using the MRC system: 0: no function, 1: flicker, 2: movement with gravity eliminated, 3: movement against gravity, 4: movement against some resistance, 5: normal (Figs. 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13, 24.14, and 24.15).

Supplementary material

Video 24.1

Chapter 24 Video (MP4 121409 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    The guarantors of brain (eds) (2000) Aids to the examination of the peripheral nervous system, 4th edn. WB Saunders, Edinburgh. pp 37–55Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Russell SM (2006) Examination of peripheral nerve injuries: an anatomical approach. Thieme, New York, pp 108–163Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG, Rodgers MM, Romani WA (2005) Muscles: testing and function with posture and pain, 5th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amgad S. Hanna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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