Neoplasms of the Genitourinary System

  • Eline DeurlooEmail author
  • Hervé Brisse
  • Anne Smets
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor (WT) is the most common renal neoplasm in children accounting for 90 % of pediatric renal tumors (Pastore et al. 2006). It is a tumor with a good prognosis and with well-established treatment strategies. Other rare malignant renal tumors, such as clear cell sarcoma and rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, have a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in older children, while mesoblastic nephroma is the most frequent renal tumor in the neonate. Hematological malignancies, the most frequent neoplasms in children, may also involve the kidney, most often as part of a multi-organ involvement. Renal infections and malformations are much more common in children than renal tumors and may show a pseudotumoral pattern mimicking a renal tumor. In all cases, close collaboration among radiologists, pediatricians, and pathologists is essential so as to avoid diagnostic pitfalls due to atypical presentations.

List of Abbreviations


Apparent diffusion coefficient


Anaplastic lymphoma kinase


Alveolar-type rhabdomyosarcoma


Bladder-prostate rhabdomyosarcoma


Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney


Color Doppler sonography


Congenital mesoblastic nephroma


Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma


Chest X-ray


Diffusion weighted imaging


Event-free survival


European paediatric Soft tissue Sarcoma Study Group


Embryonal-type rhabdomyosarcoma


Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography




Intralobar nephrogenic rests


Inferior vena cava


Metanephric adenoma


Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney


Nephrogenic rests


Nephron-sparing surgery


North American National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group


Perilobar nephrogenic rests


Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor


Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma


Renal cell carcinoma




Renal Tumour Study Group


International Society of Pediatric Oncology




Veno-occlusive disease


Wilms’ Tumor


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyInstitut CurieParisFrance

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