Advertisement

Nuclear Medicine

  • Marina Easty
  • Isky Gordon
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Paediatric renal radionuclide imaging is used for accurate assessment of renal function and the drainage pattern. The increase in functional MRI has overtaken radionuclide functional assessment in only a small number of establishments due to the requirement for patient cooperation, reasonably long scanning times and the possible need for general anaesthetic in order to undertake the MRI study. The availability of MRI scanning time also plays a significant contribution. Static and Dynamic renal scintigraphy with indirect radionuclide studies and the judicious use of Single photon emission tomography and Positron emission tomography in genito-urinary malignancies make up the majority of paediatric nephrourological scintigraphic imaging.

Abbreviations

CT

Computerised Tomography

DIC

Direct isotope cystogram

DMSA

Di-mercapto-succinic acid

EANM

European Association of Nuclear Medicine

FDG PET-CT

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography Computerised Tomography

IRC

Indirect radionuclide cystogram

MAG3

Mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine

MBq

Megabecquerels

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mSv

Millisievert

NORA

Normalised residual activity

PEE

Pelvic excretion efficiency

PM

Post-micturition

PTLD

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder

RDF

Renal differential function

ROE

Renal output efficiency

ROI

Region of interest

SPECT

Single-photon emission Computerised Tomography

TAC

Time-activity curve

US

Ultrasound

UTI

Urinary tract infection

VCUG

Voiding cystourethrogram

VUR

Vesicoureteric reflux

References

  1. Alessio AM, Kinahan PE, Manchanda V, Ghioni V, Aldape L, Parisi MT (2009) Weight-based, low-dose pediatric whole-body PET/CT protocols. J Nucl Med: Off Pub Soc Nucl Med 50(10):1570–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson PJ, Rangarajan V, Gordon I (1997) Assessment of drainage in PUJ dilatation: pelvic excretion efficiency as an index of renal function. Nucl Med Commun 18(9):823–826CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumer JH, Jones RW (2007) Urinary tract infection in children, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 92(6):189–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Begent J, Sebire NJ, Levitt G, Brock P, Jones KP, Ell P, Gordon I, Anderson J (2011) Pilot study of F(18)-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/computerised tomography in Wilms’ tumour: correlation with conventional imaging, pathology and immunohistochemistry. Eur J Cancer 47(3):389–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaiwatanarat T, Padhy AK, Bomanji JB, Nimmon CC, Sonmezoglu K, Britton KE (1993) Validation of renal output efficiency as an objective quantitative parameter in the evaluation of upper urinary tract obstruction. J Nucl Med: Off Pub Soc Nucl Med 34(5):845–848Google Scholar
  6. Cleper R, Ben Shalom E, Landau D, Weissman I, Krause I, Konen O, Rahamimov R, Mor E, Bar-Nathan N, Frishberg Y et al (2012) Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric kidney-transplant recipients - a national study. Pediatr Transplant 16(6):619–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dinneen MD, Duffy PG, Lythgoe MF, Ransley PG, Gordon I (1994) Mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG 3) renography and indirect radionuclide cystography in posterior urethral valves. Br J Urol 74(6):785–789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Eugene T, Corradini N, Carlier T, Dupas B, Leux C, Bodet-Milin C (2012) (1)(8)F-FDG-PET/CT in initial staging and assessment of early response to chemotherapy of pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas. Nucl Med Commun 33(10):1089–1095CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Godley ML, Ransley PG, Parkhouse HF, Gordon I, Evans K, Peters AM (1990) Quantitation of vesico-ureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography and urodynamics. Pediatr Nephrol 4(5):485–490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gordon I, Piepsz A, Sixt R, and Auspices of Paediatric Committee of European Association of Nuclear M (2011) Guidelines for standard and diuretic renogram in children. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 38(6):1175–1188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuzmanovska D, Tasic V, Sahpazova E (1996) Detection of vesicoureteral reflux with radionuclide cystography. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 124(Suppl 1):78–81Google Scholar
  12. Lassmann M, Treves ST (2014) Pediatric Radiopharmaceutical Administration: harmonization of the 2007 EANM Paediatric Dosage Card (Version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American Consensus guideline. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 41(8):1636CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mandell GA, Eggli DF, Gilday DL, Heyman S, Leonard JC, Miller JH, Nadel HR, Treves ST (1997a) Procedure guideline for radionuclide cystography in children. Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Med: Off Pub Soc Nucl Med 38(10):1650–1654Google Scholar
  14. Mandell GA, Eggli DF, Gilday DL, Heyman S, Leonard JC, Miller JH, Nadel HR, Treves ST (1997b) Procedure guideline for renal cortical scintigraphy in children. Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Med: Off Pub Soc Nucl Med 38(10):1644–1646Google Scholar
  15. Piepsz A, Arnello F, Tondeur M, Ham HR (1998) Diuretic renography in children. J Nucl Med: Off Pub Soc Nucl Med 39(11):2015–2016Google Scholar
  16. Piepsz A, Colarinha P, Gordon I, Hahn K, Olivier P, Roca I, Sixt R, van Velzen J, and Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear M (2001) Guidelines for 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy in children. European journal of nuclear medicine 28(3):BP37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Piepsz A, Tondeur M, Ham H (2000) NORA: a simple and reliable parameter for estimating renal output with or without frusemide challenge. Nucl Med Commun 21(4):317–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Prigent A, Cosgriff P, Gates GF, Granerus G, Fine EJ, Itoh K, Peters M, Piepsz A, Rehling M, Rutland M et al (1999) Consensus report on quality control of quantitative measurements of renal function obtained from the renogram: International Consensus Committee from the Scientific Committee of Radionuclides in Nephrourology. Semin Nucl Med 29(2):146–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ritchie G, Wilkinson AG, Prescott RJ (2008) Comparison of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renography in a paediatric population. Pediatr Radiol 38(8):857–862CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rutland MD (1985) A comprehensive analysis of renal DTPA studies. I Theory and normal values. Nucl Med Commun 6(1):11–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Shroff R, Rees L (2004) The post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder-a literature review. Pediatr Nephrol 19(4):369–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Stabin MG, Gelfand MJ (1998) Dosimetry of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures. O J Nucl Med: Off Pub Ital Assoc Nucl Med 42(2):93–112Google Scholar
  23. van der Vis-Melsen MJ, Baert RJ, Rajnherc JR, Groen JM, Bemelmans LM, De Nef JJ (1989) Scintigraphic assessment of lower urinary tract function in children with and without outflow tract obstruction. Br J Urol 64(3):263–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Yapar AF, Aydin M, Reyhan M, Yapar Z, Sukan A (2005) The conditions for which the geometric mean method revealed a more accurate calculation of relative renal function in 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. Nucl Med Commun 26(2):141–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic ImagingGreat Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

Personalised recommendations