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Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

  • Bernd Hoppe
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis (NC) are the two types of calcification associated with the urinary tract. Urolithiasis is macroscopic calcification in the urinary collecting system. Urinary stones are composed out of crystal agglomerations, sometimes mixed with proteins. Stones are formed on the renal papillae by retention of lithogenic particles (Randall’s plaques), either by obstruction or by adherence to damaged renal epithelium (Coe et al. 2010; Evan et al. 2007; Randall 1937). This takes place when urine is supersaturated with regard to stone promoting factors, e.g. increased calcium or oxalate excretion, or because the inhibitor activity is reduced, e.g. low citrate excretion (Karlowicz and Adelman 1995; Verkoelen et al. 1998).

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Bonn, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric NephrologyBonnGermany

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