Mitral Valve

  • Liem NguyenEmail author
  • Neal Gerstein


The mitral valve is a complex apparatus consisting of the annulus, leaflets, chordae tendineae, papillary muscle, myocardium, and its attendant chambers, the left atrium and ventricle. The function and competency of the mitral valve apparatus is intricately dependent on the structural integrity and coordination of each and all of its components. Structural or functional abnormalities contributing to mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation and post-procedural changes can be evaluated with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). With advancements in technology and the evolution of three-dimensional (3D) imaging, TEE is a necessary tool and modality for evaluating the mitral valve perioperatively.


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) Mitral valve Mitral regurgitation Mitral stenosis Proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) 

Supplementary material

Video 6.1

ME mitral commissural view with color flow Doppler demonstrating two distinct jets due to a sector plane that captures the two outer edges of the jet and omitting the central portion (AVI 212 KB)

Video 6.2

ME four-chamber view with posterior leaflet prolapse (P) (AVI 270 KB)

Video 6.3

ME mitral commissural view of a patient with posterior leaflet prolapse (AVI 208 KB)

Video 6.4

ME four-chamber view with anterior leaflet vegetation (AVI 10,000 KB)

330609_1_En_6_MOESM5_ESM.avi (3.3 mb)
Video 6.5 ME LAX view of the a patient with an anterior leaflet vegetation (AVI 3,358 KB)
Video 6.6

ME four-chamber view with CFD in a patient posterior leaflet prolapse and a corresponding jet directed away from affected leaflet (AVI 281 KB)

Video 6.7

CFD of the mitral valve showing trace MR (1+) (AVI 10,117 KB)

Video 6.8

CFD of the mitral valve showing mild MR (2+) (AVI 4,338 KB)

Video 6.9

CFD of the mitral valve showing moderate MR (3+) (AVI 5,998 KB)

Video 6.10

CFD of the mitral valve showing severe MR (4+) (AVI 3,120 KB)

Video 6.11

ME LAX view of a patient with rheumatic mitral stenosis and a “hockey sticky” deformity (AVI 9,402 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

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