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Transesophageal Echocardiography: Essential Views

  • Sonia NhieuEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The use of a noncomprehensive basic perioperative transesophageal echocardiographic (PTE) examination, both for intraoperative monitoring and outside of the operating room, is increasing in practice. Cardiac causes of hemodynamic instability, such as ventricular dysfunction, valvular abnormalities, volume status changes, and pericardial abnormalities can be identified with the basic PTE examination. A basic PTE exam is intended to be complementary to comprehensive echocardiography, and thus the practitioner must also recognize when further investigation of an abnormality by an echocardiographer with advanced imaging skills may be required. While the consensus statement of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) identifies 11 views for the basic PTE examination, the additional 9 views that comprise the comprehensive examination will also be discussed for completeness.

Keywords

Transesophageal echocardiography Comprehensive perioperative transesophageal examination Basic perioperative transesophageal echocardiography examination Basic perioperative TEE certification TEE perioperative guidelines 

Abbreviations

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

PTE

Perioperative transesophageal

ASE

American Society of Echocardiography

SCA

Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists

ME

Midesophageal

AV

Aortic valve

LVOT

Left ventricular outflow tract

RA

Right atrium

LA

Left atrium

RV

Right ventricle

LV

Left ventricle

TV

Tricuspid valve

MV

Mitral valve

LAX

Long axis

SVC

Superior vena cava

IVC

Inferior vena cava

ASD

Atrial septal defect

PFO

Patent foramen ovale

RVOT

Right ventricular outflow tract

SAX

Short axis

TG

Transgastric

UE

Upper esophageal

Supplementary material

Video 2.1

ME four-chamber view (AVI 11,487 KB)

Video 2.2

ME two-chamber view (AVI 11,020 KB)

Video 2.3

ME LAX view (AVI 11,999 KB)

Video 2.4

ME AV SAX view (AVI 10,674 KB)

Video 2.5

ME RV inflow–outflow view (AVI 16,682 KB)

Video 2.6

ME bicaval view (AVI 13,272 KB)

Video 2.7

ME ascending aortic SAX view (AVI 10,417 KB)

Video 2.8

ME ascending aortic LAX view (AVI 10,997 KB)

Video 2.9

TG midpapillary SAX view (AVI 14,716 KB)

Video 2.10

Descending aortic SAX view (AVI 12,152 KB)

Video 2.11

Descending aortic LAX view (AVI 12,098 KB)

Video 2.12

Descending aortic SAX view (AVI 11,474 KB)

Video 2.13

ME mitral commissural view (AVI 9,214 KB)

Video 2.14

ME AV LAX view (AVI 10,509 KB)

Video 2.15

TG basal SAX view (AVI 2,329 KB)

Video 2.16

TG two-chamber view (AVI 9,984 KB)

Video 2.17

TG LAX view (AVI 3,868 KB)

Video 2.18

Deep TG LAX view (AVI 8,996 KB)

Video 2.19

TG RV inflow view (AVI 8,641 KB)

Video 2.20

UE aortic arch LAX view (AVI 12,636 KB)

Video 2.21

UE aortic arch SAX view (AVI 8,744 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Reeves ST, Finley AC, Skubas NJ, Swaminathan M, Whitley WS, Glas KE, et al. Basic perioperative transesophageal echocardiography examination: a consensus statement of the american society of echocardiography and the society of cardiovascular anesthesiologists. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013;26(5):443–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shanewise JS, Cheung AT, Aronson S, Stewart WJ, Weiss RL, Mark JB, et al. ASE/SCA guidelines for performing a comprehensive intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography examination: recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography Council for Intraoperative Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Task Force for Certification in Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1999;12(10):884–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hahn RT, Abraham T, Adams MS, Bruce CJ, Glas KE, Lang RM, et al. Guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination: recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013;26(9):921–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and Critical CareTexas Heart Institute at Baylor St. Luke’s Medical CenterHoustonUSA

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