• Roberta Fachini Jardim CriadoEmail author
  • Paulo Ricardo Criado


Acute urticaria and angioedema can be part of the clinical spectrum of anaphylaxis and thus present a lethal risk if left untreated. Chronic urticaria, on the other hand, is a disease with major negative impact on the patients’ daily activities and can therefore worsen their quality of life. Many causes are attributed in acute or chronic urticaria; however, most of them are spontaneous. The first line of treatment of urticaria are antihistaminic drugs, while for chronic urticaria The International Consensus of Urticaria recommend antihistamine doses of up to four-fold the standard doses. The second line of treatment consists of cyclosporine, omalizumab, or montelukast.


Acute urticaria Chronic urticaria Urticaria physiopathology Urticaria treatment Antihistamine Omalizumab Cyclosporine D-dimer Mast cells 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberta Fachini Jardim Criado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paulo Ricardo Criado
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyScholl of Medicine – ABCSanto AndréBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Sao Paulo UniversitySão PauloBrazil

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