Advertisement

Tuberculosis

  • Josemir Belo dos Santos
  • Cláudia Elise Ferraz
  • Matilde Campos Carrera Thouvenin
  • Vanessa Lucília Silveira de Medeiros
Chapter

Abstract

The number of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is increasing concomitantly with the increase of pulmonary tuberculosis. Migration, increasing immunosuppression factors, and treatment resistance are mainly responsible for this growth. The varied clinical presentation and low sensitivity of conventional tests make CTB a disease that is difficult to confirm in many cases. Most histopathologic examination has classic findings, although frequency of bacilli is low and atypical granulomas may occur. New tests with lower error rate and higher accuracy are available and should become known. The list of diseases in the differential diagnosis is extensive and, apart from the shape of the skin lesion, depends on the location and age. The initial treatment is equivalent to that of pulmonary tuberculosis, but has some particularities such as difficulty in confirming possible drug resistance. This knowledge is essential for coping with the disease under current clinical circumstances.

Keywords

Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis CTB Cutaneous tuberculosis Erythema induratum Lupus vulgaris Scrofuloderma Mycobacterial skin disease Tuberculids 

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Tuberculosis (TB). Global tuberculosis report 2015. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/en/. Accessed 24 Feb 2016.
  2. 2.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis (TB). http://www.cdc.gov/tb/default.htm. Accessed 24 Feb 2016.
  3. 3.
    Frieden TR, Fujiwara PI, Washko RM, Hamburg MA. Tuberculosis in New York City – turning the tide. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(4):229–33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199507273330406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Waaler HT. Tuberculosis and poverty. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6(9):745–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and molecular determinants of virulence. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(3):463–96. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.16.3.463-496.2003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brosch R, Gordon SV, Marmiesse M, Brodin P, et al. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PNAS. 2002;99(6):3684–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.052548299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Santos JB, Figueiredo AR, Ferraz CE, Oliveira MH, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis: epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical aspects – part I. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(2):219–28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142334.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dias MF, Bernardes Filho F, Quaresma MV, Nascimento LV, et al. Update on cutaneous tuberculosis. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(6):925–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142998e.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Singal A, Sonthalia S. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children: the Indian perspective. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76(5):494–503. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.69060.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barbagallo J, Tager P, Ingleton R, Hirsch RJ, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(5):319–28. doi: https://doi.org/10.2165/00128071-200203050-00004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abebe F, Bjune G. The protective role of antibody responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;157(2):235–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.03967.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lai-Cheong JE, Perez A, Tang V, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of tuberculosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32(4):461–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2007.02352.x.
  13. 13.
    Frankel A, Penrose C, Emer J. Cutaneous tuberculosis: a practical case report and review for the dermatologist. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2009;2(10):19–27.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    World Health Organization. Tuberculosis (TB). Childhood tuberculosis. http://www.who.int/tb/areas-of-work/children/en/. Accessed 24 Feb 2016.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis (TB). Children. http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/TBinChildren/default.htm. Accessed 24 Feb 2016.
  17. 17.
    Euzéby JP. List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature (LPSN). http://www.bacterio.net/mycobacterium.html. Accessed 13 Feb 2016.
  18. 18.
    Jagielski T, van Ingen J, Rastogi N, Dziadek J, et al. Current methods in the molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:645802. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/645802.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Portal da Saúde. Tuberculose. Brasilia; 2016. http://portalsaude.saude.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11045&Itemid=674. Accessed 24 Feb 2016.
  20. 20.
    Pavlik I, Falkinham JO III, Kazda J. Potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. In: Kazda J, Pavlik I, Falkinham III JO, Hruska K, editors. The ecology of mycobacteria: impact on animal’s and human’s health. Dordrecht: Springer; 2009. p. 21–79. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9413-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sehgal VN, Bhattacharya SN, Jain S, Logani K. Cutaneous tuberculosis: the evolving scenario. Int J Dermatol. 1994;33(2):97–105. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1994.tb01534.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Concha RM, Fich FS, Rabagliati RB, Pinto CS, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis: two case reports and review. Rev Chil Infectol. 2011;28(3):262–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182011000300011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Collins FM. Tuberculosis research in a cold climate. Tuber Lung Dis. 1998;78(2):99–107. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-8479(98)80002-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fortaleza GTM, Brito MFM, Santos JB, Figueiredo AR, et al. Splenic tuberculosis during psoriasis treatment with infliximab. An Bras Dermatol. 2009;84:420–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962009000400016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Puri N. A clinical and histopathological profile of patients with cutaneous tuberculosis. Indian J Dermatol. 2011;56:550–2. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.87153.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bravo FG, Gotuzzo E. Cutaneous tuberculosis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25(2):173–80. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2006.05.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Handog EB, Gabriel TG, Pineda RTV. Management of cutaneous tuberculosis. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21(3):154–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2008.00186.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    van Zyl L, du Plessis J, Viljoen J. Cutaneous tuberculosis overview and current treatment regimens. Tuberculosis. 2015;95(6):629–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2014.12.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tappeiner G. Tuberculosis and infections with atypical mycobacteria. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al., editors. Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008. p. 1768–78.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    MacGregor RR. Cutaneous tuberculosis. Clin Dermatol. 1995;13(3):245–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wong HW, Tay YK, Sim CS. Papular eruption on a tattoo: a case of primary inoculation tuberculosis. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46(2):84–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-0960.2005.00147.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kumar B, Rai R, Kaur I, Sahoo B, et al. Childhood cutaneous tuberculosis: a study over 25 years from northern India. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40(1):26–32. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-4362.2001.01165.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nakamura S, Hashimoto Y, Nishi K, Takahashi H, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis simulating lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Australas J Dermatol. 2012;53(4):136–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-0960.2012.00957.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sehgal VN, Sehgal R, Bajaj P, Sriviastava G, et al. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis (TBVC). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14(4):319–21. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3083.2000.00075-6.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gruber PC, Whittam LR, du Vivier A. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis on the sole of the foot. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002;27(3):188–91. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2230.2002.00994.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chahar M, Dhali TK, D’Souza P. Multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cútis. Dermatol Online J. 2015;21(1):2.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vashisht P, Sahoo B, Khurana N, Reddy BS. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children and adolescents: a clinicohistological study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(1):40–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2006.01858.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bellet JS, Prose NS. Skin complications of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunization. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005;18(2):97–100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.qco.0000160895.97362.4f.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yates VM. Mycobacterial infections. In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Griffiths C, Cox N, editors. Rook’s textbook of dermatology. 8th ed. London: Blackwell Science Limited; 2010. p. 31.1–31.41.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saritha M, Parveen BA, Anandan V, Priyavathani MR, et al. Atypical forms of lupus vulgaris – a case series. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48(2):150–3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.03863.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ramesh V. Sporotrichoid cutaneous tuberculosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32(6):680–2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2007.02481.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Motta A, Feliciani P, Toto P, De Benedetto A, et al. Lupus vulgaris developing at the site of misdiagnosed scrofuloderma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003;17(3):313–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3083.2003.00783.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gooptu C, Marks N, Thomas J, James MP. Squamous cell carcinoma associated with lupus vulgaris. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1998;23(3):99–102. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2230.1998.00346.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zawirska A, Adamski Z, Stawicka E, Schwartz RA. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma developing in lupus vulgaris exfoliativus persistent for 40 years. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48(2):125–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.03850.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pacheco C, Silva E, Miranda J, Duarte R. Cutaneous tuberculosis as metastatic tuberculous abscess. J Bras Pneumol. 2015;41(2):200–2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132015000004388.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Almagro M, Del Pozo J, Rodríguez-Lozano J, Silva JG, et al. Metastatic tuberculous abscesses in an immunocompetent patient. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005;30(3):247–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2005.01728.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Daikos DL, Uttamchandani RB, Tuda C, Fischl MA, et al. Disseminated miliary tuberculosis of the skin in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(1):205–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/514608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ramos-e-Silva M, Castro CR. Mycobacterial infections. In: Bolognia JL, et al., editors. Dermatology. London: Sauders; 2012. p. 1221–42.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Park YM, Kang H, Cho SH, Cho BK. Lichen scrofulosorum-like eruption localized to multipuncture BCG vaccination site. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(2):262–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(99)70059-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jacobsen G, Samolitis NJ, Harris RM. Lichenoid eruption in a patient with AIDS – lichen scrofulosorum (LS) tuberculid with underlying MAC infection. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(3):385–90. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.142.3.385-b.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wong S, Rizvi H, Cerio R, O’Toole EA. An unusual case of vulval papulonecrotic tuberculid. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36(3):277–80. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2010.03925.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Freiman A, Ting P, Miller M, Greenway C. Papulonecrotic tuberculid: a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. Cutis. 2005;75(6):341–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim GW, Park HJ, Kim HS, Chin HW, et al. Simultaneous occurrence of papulonecrotic tuberculid and erythema induratum in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30(2):256–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01744.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kim GW, Park HJ, Kim HS, Kim SH, et al. Delayed diagnosis of scrofuloderma misdiagnosed as a bacterial abscess. Ann Dermatol. 2012;24(1):70–3. doi: https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2012.24.1.70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    von Huth S, Ovrehus AL, Lindahl KH, Johansen IS. Two cases of erythema induratum of Bazin – a rare cutaneous manifestation of tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;38:121–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mascaró JM Jr, Baselga E. Erythema induratum of Bazin. Dermatol Clin. 2008;26(4):439–45. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2008.05.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gilchrist H, Patterson JW. Erythema nodosum and erythema induratum (nodular vasculitis): diagnois and management. Dermatol Ther. 2010;23(4):320–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2010.01332.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sharon V, Goodarzi H, Chambers CJ, Fung MA, et al. Erythema induratum of Bazin. Dermatol Online J. 2010;16(4):1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Inoue T, Fukumoto T, Ansai S, Kimura T. Erythema induratum of Bazin in an infant after Bacille Calmette–Guerin vaccination. J Dermatol. 2006;33(4):268–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Departamento de Vigilância Epidemiológica. Guidelines for tuberculosis control in Brazil. Brasilia; 2011. 284p. http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/manual_recomendacoes_controle_tuberculose_brasil.pdf. Accessed 17 Feb 2016.
  61. 61.
    Almaguer-Chavez J, Ocampo-Candiani J, Rendon A. Current panorama in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2009;100(7):562–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Andersen P, Munk ME, Pollock JM, Doherty TM. Specific immune-based diagnosis of tuberculosis. Lancet. 2000;356(9235):1099–104. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02742-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ramam M, Malhotra A, Tejasvi T, Manchanda Y, Sharma S, Mittal R, et al. How useful is the Mantoux test in the diagnosis of doubtful cases of cutaneous tuberculosis? Int J Dermatol. 2011 Nov;50(11):1379–82. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.04971.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Assane K, Oumou NS, Mohamed C, Ndiaye ST, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Dakar: 151 cases report. Mali Med. 2010;25(1):14–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mazurek GH, Jereb J, Vernon A, LoBue P, et al. Updated guidelines for using interferon gamma release assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection – United States, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-5):1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Metcalfe JZ, Cattamanchi A, McCulloch CE, Lew JD, et al. Test variability of the QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube assay in clinical practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(2):206–11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201203-0430OC.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Simsek H, Alpar S, Ucar N, Aksu F, et al. Comparison of tuberculin skin testing and T-SPOT.TB for diagnosis of latent and active tuberculosis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010;63(2):99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pai M, Zwerling A, Menzies D. Systematic review: T-cell-based assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: an update. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(3):177–84. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-149-3-200808050-00241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lai CC, Tan CK, Lin SH, Liu WL, et al. Diagnostic value of an enzyme-linked immunospot assay for interferon-γ in cutaneous tuberculosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;70(1):60–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2010.11.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cho K, Cho E, Kwon S, Im S, et al. Factors associated with indeterminate and false negative results of QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube test in active tuberculosis. Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul). 2012;72(5):416–25. doi: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2012.72.5.416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vera-Kellet C, Peters L, Elwood K, Dutz JP. Usefulness of interferon- γ release assays in the diagnosis of Erythema induratum. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147(8):949–52. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/archdermatol.2011.183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Laffitte E, Janssens JP, Roux-Lombard P, Thielen AM, et al. Tuberculosis screening in patients with psoriasis before antitumour necrosis factor therapy: comparison of an interferon-gamma release assay vs. tuberculin skin test. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161(4):797–800. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09331.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Perez-Velez CM. Pediatric tuberculosis: new guidelines and recommendations. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012;24(3):319–28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835357c3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chapman AL, Munkanta M, Wilkinson KA, Pathan AA, et al. Rapid detection of active and latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-positive individuals by enumeration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells. AIDS. 2002;16(17):2285–93. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200211220-00008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    El-Khalawany M, Meraag I, Eassa B, El-Naby HH. Clinicopathological features and the practice of diagnosing infectious cutaneous granulomas in Egypt. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15(9):620–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.04.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Aggarwal P, Singal A, Bhattacharya SN, Mishra K. Comparison of the radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for the isolation of mycobacteria in cutaneous tuberculosis and their drug susceptibility pattern. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47(7):681–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2008.03675.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Umapathy KC, Begum R, Ravichandran G, Rahman F, et al. Comprehensive findings on clinical, bacteriological, histopathological and therapeutic aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis. Tropical Med Int Health. 2006;11:1521–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01705.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zouhair K, Akhdari N, Nejjam F, Ouazzani T, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Morocco. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11(3):209–12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2006.02.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chong LY, Lo KK. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Hong Kong. A 10-year retrospective study. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:26–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1995.tb04372.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Abdalla CM, de Oliveira ZN, Sotto MN, Leite KR, et al. Polymerase chain reaction compared to other laboratory findings and to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria skin infection. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48(1):27–35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.03807.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cortez MV, Oliveira CM, Monte RL, Araujo JR, et al. HIV-associated tuberculous lymphadenitis: the importance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis – a study of 104 patients. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(5):925–31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962011000500010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Barrios-Payan J, Saqui-Salces M, Jeyanathan M, Alcantara-Vazquez A, et al. Extrapulmonary locations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA during latent infection. J Infect Dis. 2012;206(8):1194–205. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis381.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tortoli E, Urbano P, Marcelli F, Simonetti TM, et al. Is real-time PCR better than conventional PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection in clinical samples? J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(8):2810–3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01412-12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goncalves MG, Fukasawa LO, Oliveira RS, Salgado MM, et al. Fast test for assessing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampin by real-time PCR. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107(7):903–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762012000700011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tan SH, Tan HH, Sun YJ, Goh CL. Clinical utility of polymerase chain reaction in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in different types of cutaneous tuberculosis and tuberculids. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2001;30(1):3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hsiao PF, Tzen CY, Chen HC, Su HY. Polymerase chain reaction based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tissues showing granulomatous inflammation without demonstrable acid-fast bacilli. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42(4):281–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-4362.2003.01461.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Senturk N, Sahin S, Kocagoz T. Polymerase chain reaction in cutaneous tuberculosis: is it a reliable diagnostic method in paraffin-embedded tissues? Int J Dermatol. 2002;41(12):863–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Freitas FAD, Siqueira HR, Albano RM. Molecular methods in diagnosis of tuberculosis and resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drugs. Pulmao RJ. 2009;18(2):96–101.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lucas S. Bacterial diseases. In: Elder DE, Elenitsas R, Murphy GF, et al., editors. Lever’s histopathology of the skin. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2009. p. 513–50.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Zuñiga J, Torres-García D, Santos-Mendoza T, Rodriguez-Reyna TS, et al. Cellular and humoral mechanisms involved in the control of tuberculosis. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:193923. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/193923.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pai VV, Naveen KN, Athanikar SB, Dinesh US, et al. A clinico-histopathological study of lupus vulgaris: A 3 year experience at a tertiary care centre. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2014;5(4):461–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.142497.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sharma S, Sehgal VN, Bhattacharya SN, Mahajan G, Gupta R. Clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous tuberculosis: a retrospective analysis of 165 Indians. Am J Dermatopathol. 2015;37(6):444–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000000297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Yates VM. Mycobacterial infections. In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rook’s textbook of dermatology. 8th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2010. Chapter 31. p. 1–30.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Singal A, Bhattacharya SN. Lichen scrofulosorum: a prospective study of 39 patients. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(6):489–93. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2005.02499.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bilan P, Sin C, Wann AR, Grossin M, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis and erythema induratum: a retrospective study of 13 cases in France. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2015;142(4):237–44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annder.2015.01.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jordaan HF, van Niekerk DJ, Louw M. Papulonecrotic tuberculid. A clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study of 15 patients. Am J Dermatopathol. 1994;16(5):474–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Choi SR, Kim JK, Kim DH, Yoon MS. A case of tuberculosis cutis orificialis with perianal involvement. Ann Dermatol. 2009;21(4):443–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2009.21.4.443.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hadj I, Meziane M, Mikou O, Inani K, et al. Tuberculous gummas with sporotrichoid pattern in a 57-year-old female: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Mycobacteriol. 2014;3(1):66–70. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2013.10.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Regnier S, Ouagari Z, Perez ZL, Veziris N, et al. Cutaneous miliary resistant tuberculosis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and literature review. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(8):e690–2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2009.03425.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thakur BK, Verma S, Hazarika D. A clinicopathological study of cutaneous tuberculosis at Dibrugarh District. Assam Indian J Dermatol. 2012;57(1):63–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.92685.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dwari BC, Ghosh A, Paudel R, Kishore P. A clinicoepidermiological study of 50 cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pokhara. Nepal Indian J Dermatol. 2010;55(3):233–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.70670.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mathur M, Pandey SN. Clinico histological profile of cutaneous tuberculosis in Central Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2014;12(4):238–41. doi: https://doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v12i4.13727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Punia RS, Aggarwal P, Kundu R, Mohan H, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis: a clinicopathological study of 50 cases from a tertiary care referral hospital. Appl Med Res. 2015;1(3):104–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.5455/amr.20150412074909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Santa Cruz DJ, Strayer DS. The histologic spectrum of the cutaneous mycobacterioses. Hum Pathol. 1982;13(5):485–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Min KW, Ko JY, Park CK. Histopathological spectrum of cutaneous tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. J Cutan Pathol. 2012;39(6):582–95. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2012.01903.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Paksoy N, Hekim E. Comparative analysis of the clinicopathological features in cutaneous leishmaniasis and lupus vulgaris in Turkey. Trop Med Parasitol. 1993;44(1):37–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nirmala V, Chacko CJ, Job CK. Tuberculoid leprosy and tuberculosis skin: a comparative histopathological study. Lepr India. 1977;49(1):65–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Leitao CCSL, Campelo ARL, Dantas AT. Tuberculose. In: Filgueira NA, Costa Jr JI, Lucena VG, Leitao CCS, Kitner D, Mendes JM, et al., editors. Condutas em clinica medica. 4th ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2007. p. 568–82.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Santos JB, Figueiredo AR, Ferraz CE, Oliveira MH, Silva PG, Medeiros VLS. Cutaneous tuberculosis: diagnosis, histopathology and treatment – part II. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(4):545–55. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142747.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ramesh V, Sen MK, Sethuraman G, D’Souza P. Cutaneous tuberculosis due to multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli and difficulties in clinical diagnosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2015;81(4):380–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.157447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Arbex MA, Varella MCL, Siqueira HR, Mello FAF. Antituberculosis drugs: drug interactions, adverse effects, and use in special situations – part 1: first-line drugs. J Bras Pneumol. 2010;36(5):626–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132010000500016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josemir Belo dos Santos
    • 1
  • Cláudia Elise Ferraz
    • 1
  • Matilde Campos Carrera Thouvenin
    • 1
  • Vanessa Lucília Silveira de Medeiros
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE)RecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations