The term “stain” is used to describe an elementary dermatologic lesion flat and not palpable, of changing color. This chapter approaches the main disturbances that manifest as stains on the skin surface, which are divided into three major groups: hyperchromia, hypochromia, and vascular injury. These conditions can be hereditary or acquired from several factors, such as infectious, inflammatory, and external agents (chemical and physical substances and some drugs). The diseases that present themselves with stains are frequently found in primary clinical service. Often the correct differential diagnoses in their etiology will prevent further damage. Therefore, through a practical guide using flowcharts based on descriptive text, this chapter is intended to help the reader in the greater understanding of each involved disease. It is important to make the diagnostic conclusion easier and to take the most appropriate action to treat the patient. Moreover, this chapter should help the general physician to identify the correct criteria for referral of the patient to a dermatologist whenever a specific intervention is necessary.
KeywordsStains Pigmentary changes Achromic stain Hypochromic stain Hyperchromic stain Purpura Vascular stain Diagnostic algorithms Public health
A technique that uses an extremely cold liquid or instruments to freeze and destroy abnormal skin cells that require removal. It can be used to destroy a variety of benign skin growths, such as warts, actinic keratoses, and some malignant lesions (such as superficial basal cell and squamous cell cancers).
A condition of the skin of the forehead with hypertrophy and deep vertical folds so as to resemble the surface of the brain. It is a feature of acromegaly, local inflammation, and acute myeloid leukemia. A rare primary form, which affects males only, is associated with neurologic problems.
Skin change produced when the skin lesion in urticaria pigmentosa is rubbed briskly. The area usually begins to itch and becomes raised and surrounded by erythema.
A technique whereby a dermatome or abrading device is used to remove the epidermis and superficial dermis, allowing regeneration of the epithelium to occur from underlying adnexal structure.
A powerful form of laser which is nearly always operated in the ultraviolet spectral region and generates nanosecond pulses.
A class of organic chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants. They sensitize the skin to the effects of the sun, thus leading to irregular pigmentation and increasing the risk of sunburn and phototoxicity.
The appearance of new skin lesions on areas of cutaneous injury in otherwise healthy skin, with the same clinical and histologic features as lesions of the patient’s original skin disease.
A technique used for the treatment of some skin diseases by exposure to light, including ultraviolet and infrared radiation. It is defined as either medium-wave light energy (ultraviolet-B light [UVB]) or long-wave light (ultraviolet-A [UVA]). UVB is available as narrowband or broadband.
Created by Robert Williams Wood, this lamp used especially to detect some skin conditions by the fluorescence induced in the affected areas by ultraviolet radiation.
Scaling of macules made prominent by stretching the affected skin. It is present in pityriasis versicolor.
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