Dermatosis in Conflict Zones and Disaster Areas
Skin diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity in conflict zones and disaster areas and are usually attributed to overcrowding, high population density in rudimentary shelters or camps, famine, inadequate safe water and sanitation, and poor vaccination status among victims. Despite the secondary role of a dermatologist in the course of an emergency, the increasing number of modern armed conflicts and natural disasters emphasizes the importance of keeping dermatologists throughout the world aware of potential risks and imminent skin damage in such circumstances. In areas with no access to dermatologic care because of distance or simple manpower, teledermatology works as an ideal solution to reach the underserved. However, many factors such as cost, lack of access to modern communication, limited human medical resources, and underdeveloped infrastructure serve as major obstacles to its widespread use.
KeywordsSkin Diseases Cutaneous Conflicts War Disasters Refugees Displaced
Transported by air.
A measure of the severity of a disease, defined as the proportion of reported cases of a specified disease or condition which are fatal within a specified time.
(Of a disease) carried by or transmitted through contaminated food.
Inflammation of the tongue. Glossitis is often caused by nutritional deficiencies and may be painless or cause discomfort
An international, independent, medical humanitarian organization that delivers emergency aid to people affected by armed conflict, epidemics, natural disasters, and exclusion from healthcare.
(Of a disease) transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies.
(Of a disease) transported or transmitted by water.
Abnormal dryness and thickening of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by vitamin A deficiency
- 1.WHO. Definitions: emergencies. WHO.int. Available from: http://who.int/hac/about/definitions/en/index.html. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 4.Wikipedia. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Wikipedia 2016. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Indian_Ocean_earthquake_and_tsunami. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 5.Nigel Inkster CMG. Armed conflict survey 2015 Press Statement. IISS.org. Available from: https://www.iiss.org/en/about%20us/press%20room/press%20releases/press%20releases/archive/2015-4fe9/may-6219/armed-conflict-survey-2015-press-statement-a0be. Accessed 20 July 2016.
- 7.Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). EU migration crisis update. MSF International; June 2016. Available from: http://www.msf.org/en/article/20160617-eu-migration-crisis-update-june-2016. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 8.Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). Invisible suffering: prolonged and systematic detention of migrants and asylum seekers in substandard conditions in Greece. MSF; April 2014. Available from: www.msf.org/sites/msf.org/files/invisible_suffering.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 9.Elfaituri S. Skin diseases among internally displaced Tawerghans living in camps in Benghazi, Libya. Int J Dermatol. 2015;:n/a-n/a.Google Scholar
- 10.WHO. Iraq (EWARN) Early warning and disease surveillance bulletins. WHO.int. Available from: http://www.who.int/hac/crises/irq/sitreps/erwan/en/. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 14.Koenig K, Schultz C. Koenig and Schultz’s disaster medicine: comprehensive principles and practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
- 15.Wikipedia. Sulfur mustard. Wikipedia 2016. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur_mustard. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 18.CDC. Bioterrorism overview. Emergency.cdc.gov. 2016. Available from: http://emergency.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/overview.asp. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 20.Wikipedia. 2001 anthrax attacks. Wikipedia. 2016. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_anthrax_attacks. Accessed 25 July 2016.
- 21.Health aspects of chemical and biological weapons. Geneva: report of a WHO group of consultants; 1970Google Scholar
- 25.International Federal of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Control of communicable diseases. ICRC. The Johns Hopkins and Red Cross Red Crescent: Public Health Guide in Emergencies. 2nd edition. Geneva: International Federal of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; 2008. Available from: http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-refugee-and-disaster-response/publications_tools/publications/_CRDR_ICRC_Public_Health_Guide_Book/Pages_from_Chapter_7_.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2016.
- 27.Lemonick D. Epidemics after natural disasters. Am J Clin Med. Fall. 2011;8(3). Available from: http://www.aapsus.org/wp-content/uploads/ajcmsix.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2016.
- 28.WHO. Migration and health: key issues. WHO int. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-determinants/migration-and-health/migrant-health-in-the-european-region/migration-and-health-key-issues#292115. Accessed 26 July 2016.
- 29.WHO. A field manual – communicable disease control in emergencies. Who.int. Available from: http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/publications/9241546166/en/. Accessed 26 July 2016.
- 33.Kouadio IK, Kamigaki T, Oshitani H. Measles outbreaks in displaced populations: a review of transmission, morbidity associated factors. BMC Int Health Hum Rights [Online]. 2010;10:5. Available from: doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698X-10-5. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 38.Médecins Sans Frontières. Nutritional guidelines. Paris: MSF; 1995. Available from: http://www.unhcr.org/publications/operations/3c4d391a4/nutritional-guidelines-msf.html. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 43.CDC. Infectious disease and dermatologic conditions in evacuees and rescue workers after Hurricane Katrina – multiple states, August-September, 2005. CDC MMWR. 2005;54(38):961–4.Google Scholar
- 44.USAID. Field operations guide for disaster assessment and response. Version 4.0 USA: USAID Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance; 2005. Available from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/fog_v4_0.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 47.WHO. Communicable diseases following natural disasters – risk assessment and priority interventions. Geneva: WHO; 2006. Available from: http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 48.Bertoletti G. Bubonic plague outbreak in the refugee camp of Mankhokwe, Malawi. Med News. 1995;4(2):21–3.Google Scholar
- 49.Matthys F. Plague epidemic in Mutarara district, Mozambique. Med News. 1995;4(2):14–20.Google Scholar
- 50.WHO. Communicable diseases and severe food shortage situations. Geneva: WHO Communicable Diseases Working Group on Emergencies; 2005. Available from: http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 52.Inci R, Ozturk P, Mulayim MK, Ozyurt K, Alatas ET, Inci MF. Effect of the Syrian civil war on prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Med Sci Monit: Int Med J Exp Clin Res. 2015;21:2100–4. Available from: doi: https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.893977. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 55.CDC. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992 Jul 24;41(RR-13):1–76.Google Scholar
- 56.Médecins Sans Frontières. Nutrition guidelines. 2nd. Paris: MSF; 2006. Available from: https://www.medbox.org/nutrition-guidelines/download.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 57.WHO. Nutrition – scurvy and food aid among refugees in the Horn of Africa. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1989;64(12):85–92.Google Scholar
- 58.Desenclos JC, Berry AM, Padt R, Farah B, Segala C, Nabil AM. Epidemiological patterns of scurvy among Ethiopian refugees. WHO Bull. 1989;67(3):309–16.Google Scholar
- 59.Médecins Sans Frontières. Refugee health – an approach to emergency situations. London: Macmillan; 1997. Available from: http://refbooks.msf.org/msf_docs/en/refugee_health/rh.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- 60.Malfait P, Moren A, Malenga G, Stuckey J, Jonkman A, Etchegorry M. Outbreak of pellagra among Mozambican refugees, Malawi 1990. MMWR. 1991;40(13):209–13.Google Scholar
- 62.Toole MJ. Preventing micronutrient deficiency diseases. Workshop on the improvement of the nutrition of refugees and displaced people in Africa, Machakos, Kenya, Kenya; 1994.Google Scholar
- 63.The Swinfen Charitable Trust. Available from: http://www.humanitariantelemed.org. Accessed 27 July 2016.
- CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergency preparedness and response. Available from: https://emergency.cdc.gov/.
- Council on Foreign Relations. Global conflict tracker. Available from: www.cfr.org/globalconflicttracker.
- EM-DAT. The international disaster database. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters – CRED. Available from:http://www.emdat.be/database.
- ICRC. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. Available from: https://www.icrc.org/.
- IISS. International Institute for Strategic Studies. Available from: https://www.iiss.org/.
- MSF. Médecins Sans Frontières. Available from: http://www.msf.org/.
- WHO. World Health Organization. Refugees. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/refugees/en/.
- WHO. World Health Organization. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Available from: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/malnutrition/en/.