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Paraneoplasias

  • Fernanda Razera
  • Renan Rangel Bonamigo
Chapter

Abstract

Paraneoplastic dermatoses are skin lesions caused by the presence of malignant tumors, but unrelated to the direct action of the tumor and its skin metastases. Dermatologic lesions are the second most common form of paraneoplastic syndrome, immediately after endocrine manifestations. This chapter covers the main paraneoplastic dermatoses cited in the literature. Among them are acanthosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, acquired ichthyosis, erythema gyratum repens, Bazex syndrome, acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa, necrolytic migratory erythema, erythema gyratum repens, Leser–Trélat sign, paraneoplastic pemphigus, paraneoplastic neutrophilic dermatoses, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma. Although they are rare they are very important lesions in the practice of dermatology, since in many cases paraneoplastic dermatosis is the first manifestation of the neoplasia, enabling an earlier diagnosis of the tumor, improving its prognosis, and also, because of the parallel course with the neoplasia, helping to monitor its recurrence.

Keywords

Paraneoplastic syndrome Paraneoplastic dermatoses Acanthosis Tripe palms Ichthyosis Erythema gyratum repens Bazex Hypertrichosis lanuginosa Necrolytic migratory erythema Pemphigus Leser–Trélat Neutrophilic dermatoses Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma 

Notes

Glossary

Acanthosis

Thickening of the spinous layer. It is a type of epidermal hyperplasia.

Acrokeratosis

Clinical condition characterized by erythematous to violaceous papulosquamous plaques arise over accrual areas.

Erythema gyratum repens

Disorder characterized by the presence of polycyclic, serpiginous erythema with scaling on its border, rapidly progressive, producing ring-shaped erythematous, concentric figures similar to a wood surface. It is highly associated with neoplasias.

Erythroderma

A condition characterized by generalized erythema and scaling, often associated with pruritus and systemic symptoms

Hamartoma

A benign tumor-like malformation composed of an abnormal mixture of mature cells and tissues found in areas of the body where growth occurs. It is considered a developmental error and can occur at a number of sites. Example: hemangiomas, melanocytic nevi.

Hypertrichosis

Increase in density and length of the hair accepted limits of normal for age, sex, or race.

Ichthyosis

Prolonged retention of the stratum corneum, leading to the formation of fishlike scales.

Interleukins

Low molecular weight molecules (cytokines), important intercellular messengers, produced by leukocytes, which preferably exert their effect in other white blood cells.

Leiomyomatosis

State of having multiple benign tumor of smooth muscle (leiomyomas).

Leser–Trélat sign

Sudden increase in the quantity and rapid growth in size of seborrheic keratoses.

Multiple endocrine neoplasias

Rare, inherited genetic mutational disorders whereby several endocrine glands develop benign or malignant tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. A single gene responsible for type 1 disease has been identified. Abnormalities in a different gene have been identified in persons with types 2A and 2B disease.

Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma

A disease caused by a granulomatous inflammation that results in the presence of plaques and firm, yellowish nodules, particularly in the face.

Necrolytic

Describes processes occurring in cell necrosis and tissue detachment.

Pachydermatoglyphy

Palmar thickening with marked palmar ridges and grooves, which exaggerate the dermatoglyphs (digital print) giving it a rough, velvety appearance.

Paraneoplastic disease

Clinical or biochemical alterations associated with malignant neoplasias that are not directly related to the invasion of the primary tumor or its metastases.

Poikiloderma

Descriptive term that combines atrophy, telangiectasia, and hyper- or hypopigmentation that may occur in different clinical situations.

Reticulohistiocytosis, multicentric

Systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause. Papulonodular skin lesions containing a proliferation of true histiocytes (macrophages) are associated with arthritis.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Private officePorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Dermatology Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Sanitary Dermatology Service of the Department of Health of Rio Grande do Sul State (ADS-SES)Porto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Graduate Pathology Program of Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

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