Dermatologic Manifestations Among Transplant Recipients

  • Lídice DufrechouEmail author
  • Alejandra Larre Borges


Organ transplantation constitutes a life-saving intervention for persons with end-stage organ disease. Long-term immunosuppressant therapy is essential for graft survival but results in reduced immunosurveillance, which leads to an increased risk of complications. A variety of dermatologic manifestations including a large increase in nonmelanoma skin cancers have been reported in this population. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in solid transplant recipients regarding epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and therapeutic approach.


Transplant Recipients Cutaneous Skin Immunosuppression 




A record of the susceptibility of specific pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics. Antibiograms are often taken into account to define a rational selection of an antimicrobial therapy.


Drugs that interfere with one or more enzymes or their reactions that are necessary for DNA synthesis. They affect DNA synthesis by acting as a substitute for the actual metabolites that would be used in the normal metabolism.

Calcineurin inhibitors

Suppress the immune system by preventing interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in T cells.


Treatment using low temperature for the removal of some skin lesions by freezing them. The most common product used by doctors is liquid nitrogen.

Mohs micrographic surgery

Microscopically controlled surgery used to treat common types of skin cancer. During the surgery, after each removal of tissue and while the patient waits, the tissue is examined for cancer cells. This examination informs the decision for additional tissue removal. Mohs surgery is one of the many methods of obtaining complete margin control during removal of a skin cancer.

mTOR inhibitors

mTOR inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit the mTOR, which is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase belonging to the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinases (PIKKs). mTOR regulates cellular metabolism, growth, and proliferation.


  1. 1.
    Ministerio de sanidad, servicios sociales e igualdad. Gobierno de España [Internet]. Available from:
  2. 2.
    La Forgia MP. Manifestaciones cutáneas en receptores de órganos sólidos. Dermatol Argent. 2006;11:94–105.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vincent M, Parrott N, Lamerton E. Shared care guideline for immunosuppression after kidney and pancreas transplantation. Central Manchester University Hospitals. Available from: Consulted: 22nd May 2014.
  4. 4.
    Shahidi S, Moeinzadeh F, Mohammadi M, Gholamrezaei A. Sirolimus-based immunosuppression for treatment of cutaneous warts in kidney transplant recipients. IJKD. 2011;5:351–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dufrechou L, Nin M, Curi L, Larre Borges P, Martínez Asuaga M, Noboa O, et al. Clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in two centers in Uruguay. Transplant Proc. 2014;46:3047–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Formicone F, Fargnoli MC, Pisani F, Rascente M, Famulari A, Peris K. Cutaneous manifestations in italian kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:2527–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sandoval M, Ortiz M, Díaz C, Majerson D, Molgó M. Cutaneous manifestations in renal transplant recipients of Santiago, Chile. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:3752–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dufrechou L, Larre Borges A, Nin M, Curi L, González F, Martínez M, et al. Cutaneous manifestations in 100 renal and renopancreatic recipients of Uruguay. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:3377–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moloney FJ, Keane D, O’Kelly P, Conlon PJ, Murphy PM. The impact of skin disease following renal transplantation on quality of life. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:574–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    DePry JL, Reed KB, Cook-Norris RH, Brewer JD. Iatrogenic immunosuppression and cutaneous malignancy. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29:602–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Quindós G. Candidiasis. Candidiasis, aspergilosis y otras micosis invasoras en receptores de trasplante de órgano sólido. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2011;28(3):110–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hinten F, Meeuwis KAP, van Rossum MM, de Hullu JA. HPV-related (pre) malignancies of the female anogenital tract in renal transplant recipients. Crit Rev Oncol/Hematol. 2012;84:161–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sitek JC1, Tangeraas T, Bjerre A, Helsing P. The prevalence of skin disorders in Norwegian paediatric renal transplant recipients. Acta Derm Venereol. 2014;94(4):421–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Netchiporouk E, Tchervenkov J, Paraskevas S, Sasseville D, Billick R. Evaluation of herpes simplex virus infection morbidity and mortality in pancreas and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2013;45(9):3343–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ulrich C, Hackethal M, Meyer T, Geusau A, Nindl I, Ulrich M, et al. Skin infections in organ transplant recipients. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008;6(2):98–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lugo-Jener G, Sánchez JL, Santiago-Depin E. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin diseases in kidney transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:410–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alper S, Kilinc I, Duman S, Toz H, Ceylan C, Unal I, et al. Skin diseases in Turkish renal transplant recipients. Inter J Dermatol. 2005;44:939–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Valdez-Ortiz R, Sifuentes-Osornio J, Morales-Buenrostro LE, Ayala-Palma H, Dehesa-Lopez E, Alberu J, et al. Risk factors for infections requiring hospitalization in renal transplant recipients: a cohort study. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:188–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iwami D, Ogawa Y, Fujita H, Morita K, Sasaki H, Oishi Y et al. Successful treatment with foscarnet for ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report. Nephrology. 2016;21(Suppl 1):63–66.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eid AJ, Razonable RR. New developments in the management of cytomegalovirus infection after solid organ transplantation. Drugs. 2010;70(8):965–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trimarchi H, Casas G, Jordan R, Martinez J, Schropp J, Freixas EA, et al. Cytomegalovirus maculopapular eruption in a kidney transplant patient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2001;3(1):47–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gaiser MR, Textor S, Senger T, Schadlich L, Waterboer T, Kaufmann AM, et al. Evaluation of specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the major capsid L1 protein of cutaneous wart-associated alpha-Papillomaviruses in solid organ transplant recipients. J Dermatol Sci. 2015;77:37–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carratalà J, Montejo M, Pérez-Romero P. Infections caused by herpes viruses other than cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2012;30(2):63–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moscarelli L, Zanazzi M, Rosso G, Farsetti S, Caroti L, Annunziata F, et al. Can skin be the first site of CMV involvement preceding a systematic infection in a renal transplant recipient? NDT Plus. 2011;4:53–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schmook T, Nindl I, Ulrich C, Meyer T, Sterry W, Stockfleth E. Viral warts in organ transplant recipients: new aspects in therapy. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149(66):20–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martelli-Marzagão F, Santos Junior GF, Ogawa MM, Enokihara MM, Porro AM, Tomimori J. Human papillomavirus detected in viral warts of renal transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2016;18(1):37–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garay I, Ruiz Lascano A, Ducasse C, Kurpis M, Boccardo G, Massari P. Manifestaciones cutáneas en pacientes receptores de trasplante renal. Dermatol Argent. 2003;9(5):275–83.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tarvade SM, Shahapurkar A, Dedhia NM, Bichu S. Herpes zoster in renal transplant recipient – case report and review of the literature. Indian J Nephrol. 2005;15:245–7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prakash J, Singh S, Prashant GK, Kar B, Tripathi K, Singh PB. Mucocutaneous lesions in transplant recipient in a tropical country. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:2162–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mustapić Ž, Bašić-Jukić N, Kes P, Lovčić V, Bubić-Filipi L, Mokos I, et al. Varicella zoster infection in renal transplant recipients: prevalence, complications and outcome. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2011;34:382–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arness T, Pedersen R, Dierkhising R, Kremers W, Patel R. Varicella zoster virus-associated disease in adult kidney transplant recipients: incidence and risk-factor analysis. Transpl Infect Dis. 2008;10(4):260–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jantsch J, Schmidt B, Bardutzky J, Bogdan C, Eckardt KU, Raff U. Lethal varicella-zoster virus reactivation without skin lesions following renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26(1):365–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Toome BK, Bowers KE, Scott GA. Diagnosis of cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection: a review and report of a case. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:860–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guo RF, Gebreab FH, Hsiang-Ho Tang E, Piao Z, Lee SS, Perez ML. Cutaneous ulcer as leading symptom of systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2015;2015:723962.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ljubojevic S, Skerlev M. HPV-associated diseases. Clin Dermatol. 2014;32:227–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chin-Hong PV, Lough JB, Robles JA. Human papillomavirus in transplant recipients. Infectious disease antimicrobial agents. Available from:
  37. 37.
    Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA. Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:737–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Castón JJ, López-Oliva MO, Torre-Cisneros J, Del Castillo D, editors. Infecciones en el trasplante renal. [updated 2015, cited 2016 March 10]. Available from:
  39. 39.
    Danzinger-Isakov L, Kumar D. Guidelines for vaccination of solid organ transplant candidates and recipients. Am J Transplant. 2009;9(Suppl 4):S258–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fungal infections. Am J Transplant. 2004;4(Suppl 10):110–34.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gavaldà J, Meije Y, Fortún J, Roilides E, Saliba F, Lortholary O, et al. ESCMID study group for infections in compromised hosts. Invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(Suppl 7):27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gonzalez Santiago TM, Pritt B, Gibson LE, Comfere NI. Diagnosis of deep cutaneous fungal infections: correlation between skin tissue culture and histopathology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(2):293–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salido-Vallejo R, Linares-Sicilia MJ, Garnacho-Saucedo G, Sánchez-Frías M, Solís-Cuesta F, Gené J, et al. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria infectoria in a renal transplant patient: surgical treatment with no long-term relapse. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2014;31(2):149–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pang KR, Wu JJ, Huang DB, Tyring SK. Subcutaneous fungal infections. Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(6):523–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vettorato G, Carvalho AVE, Lecompte SM, Trez EG, Garcia VD. Frequency of infectious dermatosis in 208 renal transplant recipients. An Bras Dermatol. 2003;78:283–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Imko-Walczuka BB, Predotaa A, Okuniewskaa A, Jaskiewiczc J, Zegarskad B, Placeke W, et al. Superficial fungal infections in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2014;46:2738–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Miele PS, Levy CS, Smith MA, Dugan EM, Cooke RH, Light JA, et al. Primary cutaneous fungal infections in solid organ transplantation: a cases series. Am J Transplant. 2002;2:678–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fortúna J, Ruiz I, Martín-Dávila P, Cuenca-Estrella M. Fungal infection in solid organ recipients. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2012;30(2):49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gilaberte M, Bartralot R, Torres JM, Sánchez Reus F, Rodríguez V, Alomar A, et al. Cutaneous alternariosis in transplant recipients: clinicopathologic review of 9 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:653–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ogawa M, Reis V, Godoy P, Gatti de Menezes F, Enokihara M, Tomimori J. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaría infectoria in renal transplant recipient. Rev Chil Infectol. 2014;31(4):468–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Koo HL, Hamill RJ, Gentry LO. Disseminated histoplasmosis manifesting as a soft-tissue chest wall mass in a heart transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2008;10:351–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McGuinn ML, Lawrence ME, Proia L, Segreti J. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as cellulitis in a renal transplant recipient. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:4313–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gulec AT, Demirbilek M, Seckin D, Can F, Saray Y, Sarifakioglu E, et al. Superficial fungal infections in 102 renal transplant recipients: a case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:187–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grossi PA, Gasperina DD, Barchiesi F, Biancofiore G, Carafiello G, De Gasperi A, et al. Italian guidelines for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2011;43(6):2463–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hay R. Superficial fungal infections. Medicine (Abingdon 1995, UK ed Print). 2013;41(12):716–8. Available from: 10.1016/j.mpmed.2013.09.011Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pedrosa AF, Lisboa C, Gonçalves RA. Malassezia infections: a medical conundrum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71:170–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Santoro-Lopes G, de Gouvêa EF, Monteiro RC, Branco RC, Rocco JR, Halpern M, et al. Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2005;11(2):203–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ada S, Seckin D, Azap O, Budakoglu I, Haberal M. Prevalence of cutaneous bacterial infections and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in recipients of renal transplants. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;34:156–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nathan DL, Singh S, Kestenbaum TM, Casparian JM. Cutaneous mycobacterium chelonae in a liver transplant patient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:333–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zwald FO, Brown M. Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management: part I. Epidemiology of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(2):253–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stoff B, Salisbury C, Parkerc D, Zwald FO. Dermato​pathology of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant Rev. 2010;24:​172–89.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Proby C, Harwood C. Porokeratosis in organ transplantation recipients. In: Otley CC, Stasko T, editors. Skin disease in organ transplantation. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 119–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wisgerhof HC, Edelbrack JRJ, de Fijter JW, Haasnoot GW, Claas FHJ, Willenze R, et al. Subsequent squamous- and basal-cell carcinomas in kidney transplant recipients after the first skin cancer: cumulative incidence and risk factor. Transplantation. 2010;89:1231–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ramsay H, Harden P, Reece S. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases are associated with altered risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: a preliminary analysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:251–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Garg S, Carroll RP, Walker RG, Ramsay HM, Harden PN, Garg S. Skin cancer surveillance in renal transplant recipients: re-evaluation of U.K. practice and comparison with Australian experience. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:177–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ho WL, Murphy GM. Update on the pathogenesis of post-transplant skin cancer in renal transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:217–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Queille S, Luron L, Spatz A, Avril MF, Ribrag V, Duvillard P, et al. Analysis of skin cancer risk factors in immunosuppressed renal transplant patients shows high levels of UV specific tandem CC to TT mutations of the p53 gene. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28(3):724–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Basset-Ségui N, Renaud-Vilmer C, Verola O. Carcinomas Espinocelulares. In: Encilcopedié Medico Chirurgicale. Paris: Editions Scientifiques et Medicales Elservier SAS; 2003. p. 98–625. -A-10.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Belloni Fortina A, Piaserico S, Alaibac M, Peserico A. Squamous cell carcinoma. In: Rosen T, editor. Skin cancer after organ transplantation. The SCOPE Collaborative Group (Eds) Springer Science Bussiness Media LLC; 2009, p. 241–61.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martelli-Marzagão F, Yamashiro AS, Ogawa MM, Santos GF Jr, Tomimori J, Porro AM. Clinical and histopathologic characterization and typing of the human papillomavirus in common warts of kidney transplant recipients. An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85(5):743–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Thoms KM, Kuschal C, Oetjen E, Mori T, Kobayashi N, Laspe P, Boeckmann L, et al. Cyclosporin A, but not everolimus, inhibits DNA repair mediated by calcineurin: implications for tumorigenesis under immunosuppression. Exp Dermatol. 2010;20:232–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Athar M, Walsh SB, Kopelovich L, Elmets CA. Pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;508:159–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Norman KG, Canter JA, Shi M, Milne GL, Morrow JD, Sligh JE. Cyclosporine A suppresses keratinocyte cell death through MPTP inhibition in a model for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Mitochondrion. 2010;10(2):94–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zwald FO, Brown M. Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management. Part II: management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65:263–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Moy RL. Clinical presentation of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(1 Pt 2):8–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dapprich DC, Weenig RH, Rohlinger AL, Weaver AL, Quan KK, Keeling JH, et al. Outcomes of melanoma in recipients of solid organ transplant. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:405–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mackenzie KA, Wells JE, Lynn KL. First and subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancers: incidence and predictors in a population of New Zealand renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Marcil I, Stern RS. Risk of developing a subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review of the literature and meta–analysis. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136:1524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jensen P, Hansen S, Moller B. Skin cancer in kidney and heart transplant recipients and different long-term immunosuppressive therapy regimens. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;40:177–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bavinck JN, Tieben LM, Van der Woude F, Tegzess AM, Hermans J, ter Schegget J, et al. Prevention of skin cancer and reduction of keratotic skin lesions during acitretin therapy in renal transplant recipients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:1933–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stasko T, Brown MD, Carucci JA, Euvrard S, Johnson TM, Sengelmann RD, et al. Guidelines for the management of squamous cell carcinoma in organ transplant recipients. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:642–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ulrich C, Arnold R, Frei U, Hetzer R, Neuhaus P, Stockfleth E. Skin changes following transplantation: an interdisciplinary challenge. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(11):188–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Begnini A, Tessari G, Turco A, Malerba G, Naldi L, Gotti E, et al. PTCH1 gene haplotype association with basal cell carcinoma after transplantation. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(2):364–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    de Carvalho AVE, Bonamigo RR, da Silva CM, De Zorzi Pinto AC. Positivity for HLA DR1 is associated with basal cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients in southern Brazil. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51:1448–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Harwood CA, Proby CM, McGregor JM, Sheaff MT, Leigh IM, Cerio R. Clinicopathologic features of skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: a retrospective case-control series. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:290–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Le Mire L, Hollowood K, Gray D, Bordea C, Wojnarowska F. Melanomas in renal transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(3):472–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Claudy A. Skin cancers after organ transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(17):1681–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hollenbeak CS, Todd MM, Billingsley EM, Harper G, Dyer AM, Lengerich EJ. Increased incidence of melanoma in renal transplant recipients. Cancer. 2005;104:1962–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kasiske BL, Snyder JJ, Gilbertson DT, Wang C. Cancer after kidney transplantation in the United States. Am J Transplant. 2004;4:905–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Robbins HA, Clarke CA, Arron ST, Tatalovich Z, Kahn AR, Hernandez BR, et al. Melanoma risk and survival among organ transplant recipients. J Investig Dermatol. 2015;135:2657–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tsao H, Olazagasti JM, Cordoro KM, Brewer JD, Taylor SC, Bordeaux JS, et al. Early detection of melanoma: reviewing the ABCDEs. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72:717–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Melanoma: Assessment and Management. National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK). London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK) 2015. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Clinical Guidelines. Available from:
  93. 93.
    Boeckle E, Boesmueller C, Wiesmayr S, Mark W, Rieger M, Tabarelli D, et al. Kaposi sarcoma in solid organ transplant recipients: a single center report. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:1905–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cattani P, Capuano M, Graffeo R, Ricci R, Cerimele F, Cerimele D, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with previous human herpesvirus 8 infection in kidney transplant recipients. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(2):506–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Barozzi P, Luppi M, Facchetti F, Mecucci C, Alù M, Sarid R, et al. Post-transplant Kaposi sarcoma from the seeding of donor derived progenitors. Nat Med. 2003;9:554–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Frances C, Mouquet C, Marcelin AG, Barete S, Agher R, Charron D, et al. Outcome of kidney transplant recipients with previous human herpesvirus-8 infection. Transplantation. 2000;69(9):1776–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Campistol JM, Cuervas-Mons V, Manitoc N, Almenar L, Arias M, Casafont F. New concepts and best practices for management of pre– and post-transplantation cancer. Transplant Rev. 2012;26:261–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Detroyer D, Deraedt K, Schöffski P, Hauben E, Lagrou K, Naesens M, et al. Resolution of diffuse skin and systemic Kaposi’s sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient after introduction of everolimus: a case report. Transpl Infect Dis. 2015;17(2):303–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Further Information Can Be Found at the Following Internet Addresses

  1. Committee for the Care of Immunosuppressed Patients of the Dermatologic Oncology Working Group:
  2. German Transplantation Society (Deutsche Transplan​tationsgesellschaft e.V., DTG):
  3. German network of dermatologists in private practice specializing in the care of organ-transplant recipients (the ONKODERM e.V. network):
  4. German Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Board (Kuratorium für Dialyse und Nierentransplantation e.V., KfH):
  5. German Association of Organ-Transplant Recipients (Bundesverband der Organtransplantierten e.V., BDO):
  6. German Working Group for Nursing Care in Transplantation (Arbeitskreis AKTX-Pflege e.V.):
  7. Skin Care in Organ Transplant Patients Network, Europe:

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adjudant Professor, UDELAR, Hospital de ClínicasCátedra de Dermatología, Unidad de Lesiones PigmentadasMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Assistant Professor, UDELAR, Hospital de ClínicasCátedra de Dermatología, Unidad de Lesiones PigmentadasMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations