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Ultraviolet Radiation and Idiopathic Photodermatosis

  • Sérgio Ivan Torres Dornelles
  • Renan Rangel Bonamigo
  • Lúcio de Almeida Dornelles
  • Marcel de Almeida Dornelles
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the various characteristics of ultraviolet radiation basically with regard to the spectrum reaching the Earth’s surface. Many biological effects determined by wavelengths are reviewed, including photodermatoses for which the pathogenesis is possibly immunologic. Useful aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of polymorphic light eruptions, actinic prurigo, hydroa vacciniforme, chronic actinic dermatitis, and solar urticaria are examined.

Keywords

Ultraviolet rays Solar radiation Vitamin D Sunscreen agents Photobiology Photosensitivity disorders Chronic disease Diagnosis Dermatitis Solar urticaria Prurigo 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Prof Dr Tania Ferreira Cestari with whom I have been working for many years, either as my tutor in the master’s degree or in the organization of congresses of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. Hers immense scientific and organizational capacity helped me in academic life and my interest in this subject. Thank you very much. Sérgio Dornelles.

Glossary

Calcineurin inhibitors

Suppress the immune system by preventing interleukin-2 production in T cells.

Catalase

A common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen. It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

Chromophores

Molecules that absorb light. Visible light that hits the chromophore can thus be absorbed by exciting an electron from its ground state into an excited state.

Endothelin 1

A potent vasoconstrictor peptide originally isolated from endothelial cells.

Fluorescence

The emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)

A gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans.

Neoantigens

Structures often associated with tumor antigens and found in oncogenic cells. Neoantigens can be formed when a protein undergoes further modification within a biochemical pathway such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, or proteolysis.

Phototest

Specialized tests that confirm the presence of an abnormal sunburn reaction. This may occur when a photosensitivity is due to medications or chronic photosensitivity dermatitis.

Polyphenol

A phytochemical antioxidant. It protects cells and body chemicals against damage caused by free radicals, reactive atoms that contribute to tissue damage in the body.

Psoralen

The parent compound in a family of natural products known as furocoumarins, a class of phototoxic plant-derived compounds.

Superoxide dismutase

An important enzyme with antioxidant action in almost all living cells exposed to oxygen.

Thioredoxin reductase

A family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases. Thioredoxin reductase reduces oxidized thioredoxin in the presence of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

Wavelength

The distance between identical points in the adjacent cycles of a waveform signal propagated in space or along a wire.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sérgio Ivan Torres Dornelles
    • 1
  • Renan Rangel Bonamigo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lúcio de Almeida Dornelles
    • 5
  • Marcel de Almeida Dornelles
    • 6
  1. 1.Sanitary Dermatology Service of Health Department of Rio Grande do Sul State (ADS-SES)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Dermatology Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Sanitary Dermatology Service of the Department of Health of Rio Grande do Sul State (ADS-SES)Porto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Graduate Pathology Program of Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil
  5. 5.Grupo Hospitalar ConceiçãoPorto AlegreBrazil
  6. 6.Hospital Mãe de DeusPorto AlegreBrazil

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