Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most commonly detected skin cancer. SCC is mainly detected in the head, neck, limbs, and areas of higher photoexposition. Both extrinsic and intrinsic individual factors account for the development of skin epidermoid carcinoma. Among the main factors there are ultraviolet radiation exposure, immunosuppression, human papilloma virus, genodermatosis, chronic dermatosis, arsenic exposure, and ionizing radiation. Its subtypes are actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma in situ, and invading epidermoid carcinoma. The main aims of SCC treatment are: total removal of the tumor thus minimizing the risk for recurrence and metastasis; preservation of function; and provision of the best possible aesthetic outcome.
KeywordsSkin epidermoid carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Skin cancer Nonmelanoma skin cancer
Variant of SCC characterized by a cleavage of the intercellular bridges, resulting in acantholysis.
Programmed cell death.
The removal of a tissue sample with a large needle for examination under a microscope.
Variant of SCC characterized by a prominent trabecular growth pattern, narrow columns of atypical epithelial cells, and a marked desmoplastic stromal reaction.
Thickening of the stratum corneum, often associated with the presence of an abnormal quantity of keratin, frequently accompanied by an increase in the granular layer.
White patch or plaque of the mucosa and mucocutaneous junction.
A chronic atrophic disorder mainly of the anogenital skin of females but also of males and of the general skin. Whitish, ivory or porcelain-white, sharply demarcated, individual papules may become confluent, forming plaques.
Marked variation of nuclear size, nuclear shape, or nuclear staining, a common finding in malignant lesions.
A disturbance of keratinization characterized by the retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum.
Skin changes consequent to exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
A nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body.
Use of a specialized surgical instrument (punch) for the removal of a full-thickness specimen of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and fat) in a defined area.
Mutation of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is a frequent event in tumorigenesis; the many roles of the protein p53 as a tumor suppressor include the ability to induce cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence, and apoptosis.
A rare hereditary skin disorder caused by a defect in the enzymes that repair DNA damaged by ultraviolet light and resulting in hypersensitivity to the carcinogenic effect of ultraviolet light.
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