Anodization: A Promising Nano Modification Technique of Titanium-Based Implants for Orthopedic Applications
Titanium is protected by a thin titanium oxide layer, which spontaneously forms on its surface when exposed to air or other oxygen-containing environments. This oxide passive layer is typically 2–5 nm thick and is responsible for the well-documented corrosion resistance property of titanium and its alloys. Because of this and their excellent mechanical properties, titanium and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. However, the native TiO2 layer is not bioactive enough to form a direct bonding with bone, which means the lack of osseointegration to juxtaposed bone might lead to long-term failure after implantation. Specifically, the 10- to 15-year lifetime of current titanium-based orthopedic implants is not as long as expected by many patients. This chapter reviews many of the current research that is being carried out to extend the life of implants by nano modification techniques.
KeywordsTitanium Titanium coatings Implants Orthopedic devices
The authors would like to thank National Science Foundation Nanoscale Exploratory Research Grant for financial assistance.
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