Machining Cancellous Bone Prior to Prosthetic Implantation

  • M. J. JacksonEmail author
  • M. Whitfield
  • G. M. Robinson
  • R. Handy
  • W. Ahmed


The chapter describes the machining of compact and cancellous bone using a micromachining tool with a specially adapted spindle and the associated mechanics of chip formation. The chapter focuses on the design of the high-speed spindle, the structure of cancellous and compact bone, the theory of machining, chip curl modeling, the development of a biomachining center, and associated experimental results. The chapter concludes by stating that high-speed machining of compact and cancellous bone to prevent necrosis of the bone is possible.


Machining Medical devices Bone Biomaterials Surgical tools Prosthetic 



The authors thank Springer and Wiley publishers for allowing the authors permission to reprint and update this chapter that was originally published in, “Surface Engineered Surgical Tools and Medical Devices,” originally published by Springer in 2007 (ISBN 978-0387-27026-5). Re-printed with kind permission from Springer Science + Business Media B.V and Wiley Publishers. The authors are grateful to Inderscience for allowing the authors to reproduce the material published in the International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials, 2009, Volume 2, Number 6, p. 505. Inderscience retains the copyright of the material used in this chapter. The authors thank their graduate students for contributing to this chapter by helping to formulate the numerical models.


  1. 1.
    Kanjarkar, K. C., Cui, J., Jackson, M. J., Hyde, L. J., & Robinson G. M. (2004, May). Optimum design and analysis of high-speed spindles for nanomachining applications using computational fluid dynamics approach. Applied Mathematical Modeling (submitted).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shaw, M. C. (1996). Metal cutting principles (pp. 18–46). UK: Oxford Science Publications—Series on advanced manufacturing, Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowden, F. P., & Tabor, D. (2001). The friction and lubrication of solids (pp. 73–75, 83–85). UK: Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Doyle, E. D., Horne, J. G., & Tabor, D. (1979). Frictional interactions between chip and rake face in continuous chip formation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A366, 173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jawahir, I. S., & Zhang, J. P. (1995). An analysis of chip formation, chip curl and development, and chip breaking in orthogonal machining. Transactions of the North America Manufacturing Research Institute—Society of Manufacturing Engineering, 23, 109–114.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim, C. J., Bono, M., & Ni, J. (2002). Experimental analysis of chip formation in micro-milling. Transactions of the North America Manufacturing Research Institute—Society of Manufacturing Engineering, 30, 247–254.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Komanduri, R., Chandrasekaran, N., & Raff, L. M. (2001). Molecular dynamics simulation of the nanometric cutting of silicon. Philosophical Magazine, B81, 1989–2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luo, X., Cheng, K., Guo, X., & Holt, R. (2003). An investigation into the mechanics of nanometric cutting and the development of its test bed. International Journal of Production Research, 41, 1449–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ahmed, W., & Jackson, M. J. (2015). Emerging nanotechnologies for manufacturing (2nd ed.). Elsevier, London: Micro and Nanotechnology Series. ISBN 978-0-323-28990-0.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davim, J. P., & Jackson, M. J. (2009). Nano and Micromachining. London: ISTE-Wiley Publishers. ISBN 978-1848-211032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Jackson
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Whitfield
    • 2
  • G. M. Robinson
    • 2
  • R. Handy
    • 3
  • W. Ahmed
    • 4
  1. 1.Kansas State UniversitySalinaUSA
  2. 2.Micromachinists GroupCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.The University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  4. 4.School of MedicineUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

Personalised recommendations