An Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for the Romanian Climate

  • Ioana UdreaEmail author
  • Cristiana Croitoru
  • Ilinca Nastase
  • Ruxandra Crutescu
  • Viorel Badescu
Conference paper


Human thermal comfort (HTC) embraces two major approaches, Fanger or classical theory and an adaptive one. Adaptive HTC equations make up parts of the worldwide recognized thermal comfort standards. The balance between thermal comfort and energy saving is held by the adaptive approach of thermal comfort. The use of adaptive HTC equations in the evaluation of existing buildings and in the design of new buildings has led to an important decrease in energy consumption and a minimization of building maintenance costs.

The adaptive HTC equations found in international comfort standards are determined from specific databases. New adaptive HTC equations are being developed worldwide for specific climatic regions. The aim of this chapter is to find a HTC equation for Romania’s climate (Köppen climate type D – temperate continental climate) that is similar to the EN 15251 adaptive HTC equation. To this end, a field survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in several naturally ventilated buildings (buildings at two prominent universities in Bucharest – a passive office building and a residential house) in Romania. Comfort parameters were measured, and comfort questionnaires were distributed to occupants.


Adaptive human thermal comfort Temperate continental climate Energy saving EN 15251 



Part of this work was funded by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007–2013 of the Ministry of European Funds through the Financial Agreement POSDRU/159/1.5/S/138963.


  1. 1.
    de Dear RJ, Brager GS, Cooper D (1997) Ashrae rp-884; Developing and adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. Technical report. The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., and Environmental Analytics, editor, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 (2010) Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. ASHRAE, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    EN 15251:2007 (2007) Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. Brussels: CEN (European Committee for Standardization)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    de Dear RJ (2010) A global database of thermal comfort field experiments. ASHRAE Trans 104(1), © 2002–2014 The University of Sydney. Last updated 14 Jan 2010. Accessed 9 Oct 2014
  5. 5.
    de Dear R, Brager G (1998) Developing and adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. ASHRAE Trans 104(1)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Dear RJ, Brager GS (2002) Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings: revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55. Energy Build, 34(6), 549–561Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilson M, Solomon J, Wilkins P, Jacobs A, Nicol F (2000) Final report of SCATs task 1, instrumentaion. Oxford Brookes University.
  8. 8.
    Nicol JF, Humphreys MA (2002) Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal standards for buildings. Energy Build 34(6):563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mishra AK, Ramgopal M (2013) Field studies on human thermal comfort—an overview. Build Environ 64:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Toe DHC, Hubota T (2013) Development of an adaptive thermal comfort equation for naturally ventilated buildings in hot–humid climates using ASHRAE RP-884 database. Front Archit Res 2:278–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nguyen AT, Singh MK, Reiter S (2012) An adaptive thermal comfort model for hot humid South-East Asia. Build Environ 56:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Indraganti M, Ooka R, Rijal HB (2013) Field investigation of comfort temperature in Indian office buildings: a case of Chennai and Hyderabad. Build Environ 65:195–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mishra AH, Ramgopal M (2015) An adaptive thermal comfort model for the tropical climatic regions of India (Köoppen climate type A). Build Environ 85:134–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rotar N (2014) Teza de doctorat (PhD Thesis): Contributii la studiul modificarii performantelor cladirilor pasive in conditiile climatului sud-est european (România), UPB, Fac. Inginerie Mecanica si MecatronicaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hera D, Drughean L, Ilie A, Crutescu R (2008) Climatizarea unei case pasive cu functiune mixta, a XV-a Conferinta; Confort, Eficienta, Conservarea energiei si Protectia mediului, 26–27 noiembrie 2008Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Udrea I, Croitoru C, Nastase I, Dogeanu A, Badescu V (2014) Thermal comfort analyses in naturally ventilated buildings, mathematical modelling in civil engineering. Sci J 10(3):64–70, ISSN 2066-6926, On-line ISSN:2066-6934Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nicol JF, Humphreys M (2010) Derivation of the adaptive equations for thermal comfort in free-running buildings in European standard EN 15251. Build Environ 45:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Griffiths I (1990) Thermal comfort studies in buildings with passive solar features, field studies. Report of the Commision of the European Community, ENS35 090, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Humphreys MA, Nicol JF, Raja IA (2007) Field studies of indoor thermal comfort and the progress of the adaptive approach. Adv Build Energy Res 1(1):55–88. doi: 10.1080/17512549.2007.9687269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioana Udrea
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cristiana Croitoru
    • 3
  • Ilinca Nastase
    • 3
  • Ruxandra Crutescu
    • 4
  • Viorel Badescu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.ASC-RomaniaBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Thermodynamics DepartmentPolytechnic University of BucharestBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Building Services DepartmentTechnical University of Civil Engineering in BucharestBucharestRomania
  4. 4.Faculty of ArchitectureSpiru Haret UniversityBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations