• Harry Gelber


The news of the Dagu defeat was a great shock in London, requiring a fresh, strong expedition to China. Elgin and Gros were sent out again with a military expedition headed by Sir James Hope Grant, whom the government firmly told that Britain’s sole objective was peaceful trade. The army would even stay outside Beijing, leaving a mere thousand excellently equipped and supplied men to escort Elgin within. The French commander was Cousin-Montauban. The overall command was in Grant’s hands. However, the Chinese, ill equipped and commanded, had one big weapon: that China’s government, if pressed, might collapse. Who could then negotiate on anything?

Appendix: British and French armies marching to Beijing


Peaceful Relation Imperial Government British Army French Army British Troop 
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© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Gelber
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TasmaniaTasmaniaAustralia

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