• Harry Gelber


The allies wanted direct representation at Beijing since dealing with provincial officials invariably led to prevarication and delay. Elgin and Gros brushed aside Chinese defences at the mouth of the Haihe River, sailed upstream to Tianjin and negotiated the 1858 treaty. London and Paris sent two more junior figures to manage details, but a new attempt to sail upriver to Tianjin was repulsed, with great losses. Elgin and Gros would have to come to China and try again.


Chinese Fire Conspiracy Theory North Bank American Minister Chinese Minister 
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© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Gelber
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TasmaniaTasmaniaAustralia

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