Advertisement

The Elbow pp 347-372 | Cite as

Management of Epicondylitis and Epitrochleitis

  • Silvia Di Giacomo
  • Giuseppe Porcellini
  • Antonio Tartarone
  • Paolo Paladini
  • Andrea Pellegrini
  • Annamaria Ricci
  • Maria Cristina d’Agostino
  • Riccardo Turoni
Chapter

Abstract

Lateral epicondylitis is a chronic inflammation of the insertions of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and of the thumb and finger extensor tendons; it is often caused by repetitive microtrauma. It is commonly called “tennis elbow”, because tennis players are frequently affected (Nirschl and Sobel, J Phys Sportsmed 9:43–54, 1981; Ollivierre and Nirschl, Sports Med 22(2):133–139, 1996). Epicondylitis was first described by Runge (Berl Klin Woschenschr 10:245, 1873); in 1936 Cyriax and Cyriax (Illustrated Manual of Orthopaedic Medicine, 1936) listed 36 causes of the condition, and in 1964 Goldie described hypervascularization of the extensor aponeurosis and an increased number of free nerve endings in the subtendinous space (Goldie, Acta Chir Scand Suppl 339:1, 1964). Earlier constructs considered the inflammatory response as the principal factor, leading to the use of the term tendonitis as opposed to epicondylitis, the term adopted by Leadbetter (Clin Sports Med 11:533–579, 1992) and by Nirschl and Sobel (Phys Sportsmed 9:43–54, 1981). The tendon of the extensor digitorum communis is involved in approximately one third of patients (Kraushaar and Nirschl, J Bone Joint Surg Am 81:259–278, 1999). According to Nirschl and Renstrom “the incidence of lateral humeral epicondylitis is far greater than that of medial epicondylitis in recreational tennis players and in the leading arm (left arm in a right-handed golfer), while medial humeral epicondylitis is far more common in elite tennis players and throwing athletes due to the powerful loading of the flexor and pronator muscle tendon units during the valgus extension overload inherent in the acceleration phase of those overhead movement patterns” (Ellenbecker et al., Sports Health 5(2):186194, 2013).

References

Surgery and Clinical References

  1. Ahmad CS, ElAttrache NS (2009) Arthroscopy in the throwing athlete. In: Morrey BF, Sanchez-Sotelo J (eds) The elbow and its disorders. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 287–595Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad Z, Siddiqui N, Malik SS, Abdus-Samee M, Tytherweigh-Strong G, Ruston M (2013) Lateral epicondylitis. A review of pathology and management. Bone Joint J 95(9):1158e1164Google Scholar
  3. Antuna SA, O’Driscoll SQ (2001) Snapping plicae associated with radio-capitellar chondromalacia. Arthroscopy 17(5):491e495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker CL Jr, Baker CL 3rd (2008) Long-term follow-up of arthroscopic treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Am J Sports Med 36(2):254–260. doi: 10.1177/0363546507311599 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumgard SH, Schwartz DR (1982) Percutaneous release of the epicondylar muscles for humeral epicondylitis. Am J Sports Med 10(4):233–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosworth DM (1965) Surgical treatment of tennis elbow; a follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 47(8):1533–1536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyd HB, McLeod AC Jr (1973) Tennis elbow. J Bone Joint Surg Am 55(6):1183–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bredella MA, Tirman PF, Fritz RC, Feller JF, Wischer TK, Genant HK (1999) MR imaging findings of lateral ulnar collateral ligament abnormalities in patients with lateral epicondylitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173(5):1379–1382. doi: 10.2214/ajr.173.5.10541124 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Buchbinder R, Green S, Bell S, Barnsley L, Smidt N, Assendelft WJ (2002) Surgery for lateral elbow pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD003525. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003525 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bunata RE, Brown DS, Capelo R (2007) Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow. J Bone Joint Surg Am 89:1955–1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burnham R, Gregg R, Healy P, Steadward R (1998) The effectiveness of topical diclofenac for lateral epicondylitis. Clin J Sport Med 8(2):78–81PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burton AK (1985) Grip strength and forearm straps in tennis elbow. Br J Sports Med 19(1):37–38PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calfee RP, Patel A, DaSilva MF, Akelman E (2008) Management of lateral epicondylitis: current concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 16(1):19–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calvert PT, Allum RL, Macpherson IS, Bentley G (1985) Simple lateral release in treatment of tennis elbow. J R Soc Med 78(11):912–915PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Charalambous CP, Stanley JK (2008) Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow. J Bone Joint Surg Br 90(3):272–279. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.90B3.19868 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chung B, Wiley JP (2004) Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of previously untreated lateral epicondylitis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 32(7):1660–1667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen MS, Hastings H 2nd (1997) Rotatory instability of the elbow. The anatomy and role of the lateral stabilizers. J Bone Joint Surg Am 79(2):225–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen MS, Romeo AA, Hennigan SP, Gordon M (2008) Lateral epicondylitis: anatomic relationships of the extensor tendon origins and implications for arthroscopic treatment. J Shoulder Elb Surg 17(6):954–960. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2008.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coleman B, Quinlan JF, Matheson JA (2010) Surgical treatment for lateral epicondylitis: a long-term follow-up of results. J Shoulder Elb Surg 19(3):363–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coombes BK, Bisset L, Vicenzino B (2009) A new integrative model of lateral epicondylalgia. Br J Sports Med 43(4):252–258. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.052738 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coonrad RW, Hooper WR (1973) Tennis elbow: its course, natural history, conservative and surgical management. J Bone Joint Surg Am 55(6):1177–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Croisier JL, Foidart-Dessalle M, Tinant F, Crielaard JM, Forthomme B (2007) An isokinetic eccentric programme for the management of chronic lateral epicondylar tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med 41(4):269–275PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dorf ER, Chhabra AB, Golish SR, McGinty JL, Pannunzio ME (2007) Effect of elbow position on grip strength in the evaluation of lateral epicondylitis. J Hand Surg Am 32(6):882e886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunkow PD, Jatti M, Muddu BN (2004) A comparison of open and percutaneous techniques in the surgical treatment of tennis elbow. J Bone Joint Surg Br 86(5):701–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunn JH, Kim JJ, Davis L, Nirschl RP (2008) Ten- to 14-year follow-up of the Nirschl surgical technique for lateral epicondylitis. Am J Sports Med 36(2):261–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Faro F, Wolf JM (2007) Lateral epicondylitis: review and current concepts. J Hand Surg Am 32(8):1271e1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garg R, Adamson GJ, Dawson PA, Shankwiler JA, Pink MM (2010) A prospective randomized study comparing a forearm strap brace versus a wrist splint for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. J Shoulder Elb Surg 19(4):508–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geyer M (2009) Ligamentare Ellbogeninstabilitaten. Orthop Unfall Up2date 4(06):395–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giangarra CE, Conroy B, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J (1993) Electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of elbow function in tennis players using singleand double-handed backhand strokes. Am J Sports Med 21(3):394–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldberg EJ, Abraham E, Siegel I (1988) The surgical treatment of chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis by common extensor release. Clin Orthop Relat Res 233:208–212Google Scholar
  31. Gosens T, Peerbooms JC, van Laar W, den Oudsten BL (2011a) Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 39(6):1200–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grifka J, Boenke S, Kramer J (1995) Endoscopic therapy in epicondylitis radialis humeri. Arthroscopy 11(6):743–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Groppel JL, Nirschl RP (1986) A mechanical and electromyographical analysis of the effects of various joint counterforce braces on the tennis player. Am J Sports Med 14(3):195–200PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grundberg AB, Dobson JF (2000a) Percutaneous release of the common extensor origin for tennis elbow. Clin Orthop Relat Res 376:137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grundberg AB, Dobson JF (2000b) Percutaneous release of the common extensor origin for tennis elbow. Clin Orthop Relat Res 376:137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haake M, Konig IR, Decker T et al (2002) Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a randomized multicenter trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 84(11):1982–1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hausman MR, Lang P (2014) Examination of the elbow: current concepts. J Hand Surg Am 39(12):2534–2541. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.04.028. Epub 2014 Nov 21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hay EM, Paterson SM, Lewis M, Hosie G, Croft P (1999a) Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injection and naproxen for treatment of lateral epicondylitis of elbow in primary care. BMJ 319(7215):964–968PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hay EM, Paterson SM, Lewis M, Hosie G, Croft P (1999b) Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injection and naproxen for treatment of lateral epicondylitis of elbow in primary care. BMJ 319(7215):964–968PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hechtman KS, Uribe JW, Botto-vanDemden A, Kiebzak GM (2011) Platelet-rich plasma injection reduces pain in patients with recalcitrant epicondylitis. Orthopedics 34(2):92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hohmann G (1933) Das Wesen und die Behandlung des sogenannten Tennisellenbogens. Münch Med Wochenschr 80:250–252Google Scholar
  42. Hoogvliet P, Randsdorp MS, Dingemanse R, Koes BW, Huisstede B (2013a) Does effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques offer guidance for the treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 47:1112–1119. originally published online May 24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hsu SH, Moen TC, Levine WN, Ahmad CS (2012) Physical examination of the athlete’s elbow. Am J Sports Med 40(3):699e708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hume PA, Reid D, Edwards T (2006) Epicondylar injury in sport: epidemiology, type, mechanisms, assessment, management and prevention. Sports Med 36(2):151–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kalainov DM, Cohen MS (2005a) Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow in association with lateral epicondylitis. A report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87(5):1120–1125. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02293 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalainov DM, Cohen MS (2005b) Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow in association with lateral epicondylitis. A report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87(5):1120–1125. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02293 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kaleli T, Ozturk C, Temiz A, Tirelioglu O (2004) Surgical treatment of tennis elbow: percutaneous release of the common extensor origin. Acta Orthop Belg 70(2):131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kniesel B, Huth J, Bauer G, Mauch F (2014) Systematic diagnosis and therapy of lateral elbow pain with emphasis on elbow instability. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 134(12):1641–1647. doi: 10.1007/s00402-014-2087-4. Epub 2014 Sep 30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Knutsen EJ, Calfee RP (2013) Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies. Hand Clin 29(3):443e453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuklo TR, Taylor KF, Murphy KP, Islinger RB, Heekin RD, Baker CL Jr (1999) Arthroscopic release for lateral epicondylitis: a cadaveric model. Arthroscopy 15(3):259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kurppa K, Viikari-Juntura E, Kuosma E, Huuskonen M, Kivi P (1991) Incidence of tenosynovitis or peritendinitis and epicondylitis in a meat-processing factory. Scand J Work Environ Health 17(1):32–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Labelle H, Guibert R (1997) Efficacy of diclofenac in lateral epicondylitis of the elbow also treated with immobilization: the University of Montreal Orthopaedic Research Group. Arch Fam Med 6(3):257–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lattermann C, Romeo AA, Anbari A et al (2010b) Arthroscopic debridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. J Shoulder Elb Surg 19(5):651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lo MY, Safran MR (2007) Surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res 463:98–106. doi: 10.1097/BLO.0b013e3181483dc4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mackay D, Rangan A, Hide G, Hughes T, Latimer J (2003a) The objective diagnosis of early tennis elbow by magnetic resonance imaging. Occup Med (Lond) 53(5):309–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mackay D, Rangan A, Hide G, Hughes T, Latimer J (2003b) The objective diagnosis of early tennis elbow by magnetic resonance imaging. Occup Med (Lond) 53(5):309–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Martin CE, Schweitzer ME (1998) MR imaging of epicondylitis. Skelet Radiol 27(3):133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martinez-Silvestrini JA, Newcomer KL, Gay RE, Schaefer MP, Kortebein P, Arendt KW (2005) Chronic lateral epicondylitis: comparative effectiveness of a home exercise program including stretching alone versus stretching supplemented with eccentric or concentric strengthening. J Hand Ther 18(4):411–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Merrell G, DaSilva MF (2009) Arthroscopic treatment of lateral epicondylitis. J Hand Surg Am 34(6):1130–1134. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2009.02.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mishra A, Pavelko T (2006) Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma. Am J Sports Med 34(11):1774–1778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nirschl RP, Pettrone FA (1979a) Tennis elbow. The surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61(6A):832–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nirschl RP, Pettrone FA (1979b) Tennis elbow. The surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61(6A):832–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nirschl RP (1973) Tennis elbow. Orthop Clin North Am 4(3):787–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Nirschl RP (1988) Prevention and treatment of elbow and shoulder injuries in the tennis player. Clin Sports Med 7(2):289–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Nirschl RP, Alvarado GJ (2009) Tennis elbow tendinosis. In: Morrey BF, Sanchez-Sotelo J (eds) The elbow and its disorders. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 626–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Othman AM (2011) Arthroscopic versus percutaneous release of common extensor origin for treatment of chronic tennis elbow. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 131(3):383–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Owens BD, Murphy KP, Kuklo TR (2001) Arthroscopic release for lateral epicondylitis. Arthroscopy 17(6):582–587. doi: 10.1053/jars.2001.20098 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Peart RE, Strickler SS, Schweitzer KM Jr (2004) Lateral epicondylitis: a comparative study of open and arthroscopic lateral release. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 33(11):565–567Google Scholar
  69. Peerbooms JC, Sluimer J, Bruijn DJ, Gosens T (2010a) Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 38(2):255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pettrone FA, McCall BR (2005a) Extracorporeal shock wave therapy without local anesthesia for chronic lateral epicondylitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87(6):1297–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pruzansky ME, Gantsoudes GD, Watters N (2009) Late surgical results of reattachment to bone in repair of chronic lateral epicondylitis. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 38(6):295–299Google Scholar
  72. Rineer C, Ruch DS (2009) Elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures: epi-condylitis, biceps and triceps ruptures. J Hand Surg Am 34(3):566e576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ritz BR (1995) Humeral epicondylitis among gas- and waterworks employees. Scand J Work Environ Health 21(6):478–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Safran M, Ahmad CS, Elattrache NS (2005) Ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow. Arthroscopy 21(11):1381–1395. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2005.07.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sanchez-Sotelo J (2009) Lateral collateral ligament insufficiency. In: Morrey BF, Sanchez-Sotelo J (eds) The elbow and its disorders. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 669–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Savnik A, Jensen B, Norregaard J, Egund N, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Bliddal H (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of treatment response of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. Eur Radiol 14(6):964–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shiri R, Viikari-Juntura E, Varonen H, Heliovaara M (2006a) Prevalence and determinants of lateral and medial epicondylitis: a population study. Am J Epidemiol 164(11):1065–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shiri R, Viikari-Juntura E, Varonen H, Heliovaara M (2006b) Prevalence and determinants of lateral and medial epicondylitis: a population study. Am J Epidemiol 164(11):1065–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smidt N, van der Windt DA, Assendelft WJ, Deville WL, Korthals-de Bos IB, Bouter LM (2002a) Corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy, or a wait-and-see policy for lateral epicondylitis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 359:657–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith AM, Castle JA, Ruch DS (2003) Arthroscopic resection of the common extensor origin: anatomic considerations. J Shoulder Elb Surg 12(4):375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stapleton T, Baker C (1996) Arthroscopic treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a clinical study. Arthroscopy 12(3):365–366Google Scholar
  82. Thanasas C, Papadimitriou G, Charalambidis C, Paraskevopoulos I, Papanikolaou A (2011a) Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous whole blood for the treatment of chronic lateral elbow epicondylitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Sports Med 39(10):2130–2134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thornton SJ, Rogers JR, Prickett WD, Dunn WR, Allen AA, Hannafin JA (2005) Treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis with suture anchor repair. Am J Sports Med 33(10):1558–1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Timmerman LA, Andrews JR (1994) Undersurface tear of the ulnar collateral ligament in baseball players. A newly recognized lesion. Am J Sports Med 22(1):33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tosti R, Jennings J, Sewards JM (2013) Lateral epicondyltitis of the elbow. Am J Med 126(4):357.e1e6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tseng V (1994) Arthroscopic lateral release for treatment of tennis elbow. Arthroscopy 10:335–336Google Scholar
  87. Verhaar JA (1994) Tennis elbow. Anatomical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects. Int Orthop 18(5):263–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Verhaar J, Walenkamp G, Kester A, van Mameren H, van der Linden T (1993) Lateral extensor release for tennis elbow. A prospective long-term follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 75(7):1034–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wada T, Moriya T, Iba K, Ozasa Y, Sonoda T, Aoki M, Yamashita T (2009) Functional outcomes after arthroscopic treatment of lateral epicondylitis. J Orthop Sci 14(2):167–174. doi: 10.1007/s00776-008-1304-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Walz DM, Newman JS, Konin GP, Ross G (2010) Epicondylitis: pathogenesis, imaging, and treatment. Radiographics 30(1):167–184. doi: 10.1148/rg.301095078 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Whaley AL, Baker CL (2004) Lateral epicondylitis. Clin Sports Med 23(4):677–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wilhelm A (2000) Die Denervation zur Behandlung der therapieresistenten Epicondylitis humeri lateralis. Oper Orthop Traumatol 12(2):95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wilhelm A (2009) Lateral epicondylitis review and current concepts. J Hand Surg Am 34(7):1358–1359. (author reply 1359–1360). doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2009.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Yerger B, Turner T (1985) Percutaneous extensor tenotomy for chronic tennis elbow: an office procedure. Orthopedics 8(10):1261–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar

PRP References

  1. Gosens T, Peerbooms JC, van Laar W, den Oudsten BL (2011b) Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 39(6):1200–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Lattermann C, Romeo AA, Anbari A, Meininger AK, McCarty LP, Cole BJ, Cohen MS (2010a) Arthroscopic debridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. J Shoulder Elb Surg 19:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Peerbooms JC, Sluimer J, Bruijn DJ, Gosens T (2010b) Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 38(2):255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Thanasas C, Papadimitriou G, Charalambidis C, Paraskevopoulos I, Papanikolaou A (2011b) Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous whole blood for the treatment of chronic lateral elbow epicondylitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Sports Med 39:2130–2134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Epicondylitis and Epitrocleitis Rehabilitation References

  1. Almekinders IC, Mafulli N (2003) Types and epidemiology of tendinopathy. Clin Sports Med 22:673–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boccardi S, Ruggeri A, Guizzardi S, Sandrini G (1991) I Muscoli. Masson, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  3. Celik D (2014) Psychometric properties of the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. Rheumatol Int 35:1015–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cleland J (2014) (ed italiana a cura di Ferrari, Testa): l’esame clinico ortopedico un approccio EBM edizione Masson ristampaGoogle Scholar
  5. Cullinane FL, Boocock MG, Trevelyan FC (2014) Is eccentric exercise an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis? A systematic review. Clin Rehabil 28(1):3–19. doi: 10.1177/0269215513491974. Epub 2013 Jul 23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Demartin F, Schiavi L (1970) Epitrochleitis [Article in Italian]. Chir Organi Mov 59(1):66–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimnjaković D, Bojanić I, Smoljanović T, Mahnik A, Barbarić-Peraić N (2012) Eccentric exercises in the treatment of overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system [Article in Croatian]. Lijec Vjesn 134(1–2):29–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dundar U, Turkmen U, Toktas H, Ulasli AM, Solak O (2015) Effectiveness of high-intensity laser therapy and splinting in lateral epicondylitis; a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Lasers Med Sci 30(3):1097–1107. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1716-7. Epub 2015 Jan 23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoogvliet P, Randsdorp MS, Dingemanse R, Koes BW, Huisstede BM (2013b) Does effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques offer guidance for the treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 47(17):1112–1119. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091990. Epub 2013 May 24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoppenfeld S (1985) L’esame obiettivo dell’apparato locomotore. Aulo Gaggi, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  11. Leadbetter WB (1992) Cell matrix response in tendon injury. Clin Sports Med 11:533–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee JH, Lee SH (2015) Lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathy after steroid injection at lateral epicondyle. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 28(2):419–422. doi: 10.3233/BMR-140524 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Loew LM, Brosseau L, Tugwell P, Wells GA, Welch V, Shea B, Poitras S, De Angelis G, Rahman P (2014) Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD003528. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003528.pub2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mancini A, Morlacchi C (2003) Clinica Ortopedica. Piccin, PadovaGoogle Scholar
  15. Nirschl RP, Morrey BF (1985) Rehabilitation. In: Morrey BF (ed) The elbow and its disorders. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 47–152Google Scholar
  16. Paoletti S (2003) Le fasce – il ruolo dei tessuti nella meccanica umana Ed. ESOMMGoogle Scholar
  17. Pellissier J, Simon L, Florensa G, Dotte P, Izard MH Patologia del gomito e rieducazione. E.M.C. Roma-ParigiGoogle Scholar
  18. Rotini R, Fontana M, Catamo L, Noia F, Magnani M (2000) Lateral epicondylitis: clinical classification and proposal for treatment. Chir Organi Mov 85(1):57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sims SE, Miller K, Elfar JC, Hammert WC (2014) Non-surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Hand (NY) 9(4):419–446. doi: 10.1007/s11552-014-9642-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smidt N, van der Windt DA, Assendelft WJ et al (2002b) Interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strenght and pain pressure thresholdin patients with lateral epicondylitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:1145–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stratford PW, Norman GR, McIntosh JM (1989) Generalizability of grip strength measurements in patients with tennis elbow. Phys Ther 69:276–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stratford PW, Levy D, Gauldie S, Levy K, Miseferi D (1987) Extensor carpi tendonitis: a validation of selected outcome measures. Physiother Can 39:250–254Google Scholar
  23. Waissman FQ, Orsini M, Nascimento OJ, Leite MA, Pereira JS (2013) Sensitive training through body awarness to improve the writing of patients with writer’s cramp. Neurol Int 5(4):e24PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Waseem M, Nuhmani S, Ram CS, Sachin Y (2012) Lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature. J Back Muscoloskelet Rehabil 25:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Shock Wave When References

  1. Ciccotti MC, Schwartz MA, Ciccotti MG (2004) Diagnosis and treatment of medial epicondylitis of the elbow. Clin Sports Med 23(4):693–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. d’Agostino MC, Craig K, Tibalt E, Respizzi S (2015) Shock wave as biological therapeutic tool: From mechanical stimulation to recovery and healing, through mechanotransduction. Int J Surg 24(Pt B):147–153. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.11.030 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Furia JP (2005) Safety and efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic lateral epicondylitis. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 34(1):13–19; discussion 19Google Scholar
  4. Haupt G (1997) Shock waves in orthopedics [Article in German]. Urologe A 36(3):233–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Haupt G, Diesch R, Strauss T, Penninger E et al (2006) rESWT – A new method for the treatment of epicondylitis humeri lateralis. In: Gerdesmeyer L, Scott Weil L (eds) Extracorporeal shock wave therapy: clinical results, technologies, basics. Data Trace Publishing Company, Towson, pp 205–216Google Scholar
  6. Ilieva EM, Minchev RM, Petrova NS (2012) Radial shock wave therapy in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 54(3):35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ko JY, Chen HS, Chen LM (2001) Treatment of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow with shock waves. Clin Orthop Relat Res 387:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krischek O, Hopf C, Nafe B, Rompe JD (1999) Shock-wave therapy for tennis and golfer’s elbow – 1 year follow-up. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 119(1-2):62–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Krischek O, Pompe JD, Hopf C, Vogel J, Herbsthofer B, Nafe B, Bürger R (1998) Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in epicondylitis humeri ulnaris or radialis – a prospective, controlled, comparative study [Article in German]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 136(1):3–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee SS, Kang S, Park NK, Lee CW, Song HS, Sohn MK, Cho KH, Kim JH (2012) Effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the newly diagnosed lateral or medial epicondylitis. Ann Rehabil Med 36(5):681–687PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Maier M, Steinborn M, Schmitz C, Stäbler A, Köhler S, Veihelmann A, Pfahler M, Refior HJ (2001) Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for chronic lateral tennis elbow – prediction of outcome by imaging. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 121(7):379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Notarnicola A, Moretti B (2012) The biological effects of ESWT on tendon tissue. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 2(1):33–37PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Ozturan KE, Yucel I, Cakici H, Guven M, Sungur I (2010) Autologous blood and corticosteroid injection and extracoporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Orthopedics 33(2):84–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pettrone FA, McCall BR (2005b) Extracorporeal shock wave therapy without local anesthesia for chronic lateral epicondylitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87(6):1297–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Radwan YA, ElSobhi G, Badawy WS, Reda A, Khalid S (2008) Resistant tennis elbow: shock-wave therapy versus percutaneous tenotomy. Int Orthop 32(5):671–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rompe JD, Maffulli N (2007) Repetitive shock wave therapy for lateral elbow tendinopathy (tennis elbow): a systematic and qualitative analysis. Br Med Bull 83:355–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rompe JD, Theis C, Maffulli N (2005) Shock wave treatment for tennis elbow [Article in German]. Orthopade 34(6):567–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rompe JD, Hopf C, Küllmer K, Witzsch U, Nafe B (1996) Extracorporeal shockwave therapy of radiohumeral epicondylopathy—an alternative treatment concept [Article in German]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 134(1):63–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rompe JD, Eysel P, Hopf C, Krischek O, Vogel J, Bürger R, Jage J, Heine J (1997) Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in orthopedics. Positive results in tennis elbow and tendinosis calcarea of the shoulder [Article in German]. Fortschr Med 115(18):26, 29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Sistermann R, Katthagen BD (1998) Complications, side-effects and contraindications in the use of medium and high-energy extracorporeal shock waves in orthopedics [Article in German]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 136(2):175–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Spacca G, Necozione S, Cacchio A (2005) Radial shock wave therapy for lateral epicondylitis: a prospective randomised controlled single-blind study. Eura Medicophys 41(1):17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Thiele S, Thiele R, Gerdesmeyer L (2015) Lateral epicondylitis: This is still a main indication for extracorporeal shockwave therapy. Int J Surg 24(Pt B):165–170. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.09.034. Epub 2015 Oct 9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Visco V, Vulpiani MC, Torrisi MR, Ferretti A, Pavan A, Vetrano M (2014) Experimental studies on the biological effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on tendon models. A review of the literature. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 4(3):357–361PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang CJ (2012) Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders. J Orthop Surg Res 7:11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Ajimsha MS, Chithra S, Thulasyammal RP (2012) Effectiveness of myofascial release in the management of lateral epicondylitis in computer professionals. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 93(4):604–609PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cyriax JH, Cyriax PJ (1983) Illustrated manual of orthopaedic medicine. Butterworth, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  3. Ellenbecker TS, Nirschl R, Renstrom P (2013) Current concepts in examination and treatment of elbow tendon injury. Sports Health 5(2):186194. doi: 10.1177/1941738112464761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gabel GT, Morrey BF (1995) Operative treatment of medial epicondylitis. Influence of concomitant ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. J. Bone Joint Surg 77A:1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Geldschläger S (2004) Osteopathic versus orthopedic treatments for chronic epicondylopathia humeri radialis: a randomized controlled trial. Forsch Komplementärmed Klass Naturheilkd = Res Complement Nat Class Med 11(2):93–97Google Scholar
  6. Goldie I (1964) Epicondylitis lateralis humeri. Acta Chir Scand Suppl 339:1Google Scholar
  7. Jean-François K, Pierre D, Jean-Louis C, Jean-Michel C (2015) Tendinopathies and platet-rich plasma (PRP):from pre-clinical experiments to therapeutic use. J Stem Cells Regen Med 11(1):7–17Google Scholar
  8. Johnson GW, Cadwallader K, Scheffel SB, Epperly TD (2009) Treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Am Fam Physicia 76:843–848, 849-50;853Google Scholar
  9. Kim JW, Chun CH, Shim DM, Kim TK, Kweon SH, Kang HJ, Bae KH (2011) Arthroscopic treatment of lateral epicondylitis: comparison of the outcome of ECRB release with and without decortication. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19:1178–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knutsen EJ, Calfee RP, Chen RE, Goldfarb CA, Park KW, Osei DA (2015) Factors associated with failure of nonoperative treatment in lateral epicondylitis. Am J Sports Med 43(9):2133–2137PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kraushaar BS, Nirschl RP (1999) Tendinosis of the elbow (tennis elbow). Clinical features and findings of histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy studies. J Bone Joint Surg Am 81:259–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krogh TP, Bartels EM, Ellingsen T, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Buchbinder R, Fredberg U, Bliddal H, Christensen R (2013a) Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Sports Med 41(6):1435–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krogh TP, Fredberg U, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Christensen R, Jensen P, Ellingsen T (2013b) Treatment of lateral epicondylitis with platelet-rich plasma, glucocorticoid, or saline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 41:625–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mardani-Kivi M, Karimi-Mobarakeh M, Karimi A, Akhoondzadeh N, Saheb-Ekhtiari K, Hashemi-Motlagh K, Bahrami F (2013) The effects of corticosteroid injection versus local anesthetic injection in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a randomized single-blinded clinical trial. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 133(6):757–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Massy-Westropp N, Simmonds S, Caragianis S, Potter A (2012) Autologous blood injection and wrist immobilisation for chronic lateral epicondylitis. Adv Orthop 2012:387829PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Giovagnorio F, Pugliese F (2001) Ultra- sound of the elbow. Skelet Radiol 30:605–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller T, Shapiro MA, Schultz E, Kalish PE (2002) Comparison of sonography and MRI for diagnosing epicondylitis. J Clin Ultrasound 30(4):193–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nirschl RP (2015) The epidemiology and health care burden of tennis elbow:a population-based study. Ann Transl Med 3(10):133PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Nirschl R, Sobel J (1981a) Conservative treatment of tennis elbow. Phys Sportsmed 9:43–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nirschl R, Sobel J (1981b) Conservative treatment of tennis elbow. Phys Sportsmed 9:43–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ollivierre CO, Nirschl RP (1996) Tennis elbow: current concepts of treatment and rehabilitation. Sports Med 22(2):133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paoloni J, De Vos RJ, Hamilton B, Murrell GA, Orchard J (2011) Platelet-rich plasma treatment for ligament and tendon injuries. Clin J Sport Med 21(1):37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park GY, Lee SM, Lee MY (2008) Diagnostic value of ultra-sonography for clinical medial epicondylitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89:738–742CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Runge F (1873) Zur genese unt behand lung bes schreibekramp fes. Berl Klin Woschenschr 10:245Google Scholar
  25. Savoie FH 3rd, VanSice W, O’Brien MJ (2010) Arthroscopic tennis elbow release. J Shoulder Elb Surg 19(2 Suppl):31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shawn WM, O’Driscoll SW, Lawton RL, Smith A (2005) The “moving valgus stress test” for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow. Am J Sports Med 33:231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Di Giacomo
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Porcellini
    • 2
  • Antonio Tartarone
    • 2
  • Paolo Paladini
    • 2
  • Andrea Pellegrini
    • 3
  • Annamaria Ricci
    • 2
  • Maria Cristina d’Agostino
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Riccardo Turoni
    • 7
  1. 1.Shoulder TeamForliItaly
  2. 2.Shoulder and Elbow Unit, D. Cervesi HospitalCattolicaItaly
  3. 3.Clinica OrtopedicaUniversità di ParmaParmaItaly
  4. 4.Shockwave Therapy UnitRehabilitation Department at Humanitas Research HospitalMilanItaly
  5. 5.Faculty of MedicineHumanitas UniversityMilanItaly
  6. 6.ISMSTMilanItaly
  7. 7.AIFI – CIES ITALY – SITODForliItaly

Personalised recommendations