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Prevention of Osteoporosis and Fragility Fractures

  • René RizzoliEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

A fracture represents a structural failure of the bone whereby the forces applied to the bone exceed its load-bearing capacity. Therefore, besides bone geometry, mass, density, microstructure, and material level properties, the direction and magnitude of the applied load also determine whether a bone will fracture. Almost all fractures, even those qualified as “low-trauma” fractures, occur as the result of some injury, for instance, a fall from standing height or bending forward to lift heavy objects for vertebral fracture. While available pharmacological intervention is primarily aimed at restoring bone strength (i.e., reducing bone fragility) by altering bone turnover and/or material level properties, a variety of preventive measures for osteoporotic fractures are capable of influencing both components of fracture risk: mechanical overload, for example, falls, and mechanical incompetence, such as osteoporosis.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Fragility fracture Physical activity Nutrition Vitamin D Calcium Fall prevention 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Bone DiseasesGeneva University Hospitals and Faculty of MedicineGenevaSwitzerland

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