Evaluation of Fracture Risk
The World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criterion for osteoporosis, launched in 1994, was based on the bone mineral density (BMD) T-score (<−2.5) and is still used in many healthcare systems as a necessary requirement for reimbursement of osteoporosis therapies that reduce fracture risk. However, as implied by this chapter title, and indeed the definition of osteoporosis itself (see Chap. 2), there is more to the assessment of fracture risk than simply the identification of BMD-defined osteoporosis.
KeywordsOsteoporosis Fracture risk Bone mineral density DXA FRAX Bone structure Bone mass QCT QUS
- 1.[No authors listed]. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO Study Group. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1994;843:1–129.Google Scholar
- 4.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE Clinical Guideline 146. Osteoporosis: assessing the risk of fragility fracture. 2012. DOI: guidance.nice.org.uk/CG146.
- 6.International Society for Clinical Densitometry, Official Positions 2015 ISCD Combined. 2015.Google Scholar
- 10.Kanis JA. on behalf of the WHO Scientific Group, Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level. Technical Report. 2008, WHO Collaborating Centre, University of Sheffield, UK: Sheffield.Google Scholar