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Diagnosis and Clinical Aspects of Osteoporosis

  • John A. KanisEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. The diagnosis is made from the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). However, factors other than BMD contribute to fracture risk so that a distinction is made between the diagnosis of osteoporosis and the assessment of fracture risk. Major osteoporotic fractures comprise those at the hip, distal forearm, spine and proximal humerus. Of these, hip fractures incur the greatest burden in terms of cost, chrinic morbidity and mortality.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Bone mineral density Fragility fracture Osteopenia Hip fracture Vertebral fracture Forearm fracture Disease burden 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical SchoolSheffieldUK

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