Diagnosis and Clinical Aspects of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. The diagnosis is made from the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). However, factors other than BMD contribute to fracture risk so that a distinction is made between the diagnosis of osteoporosis and the assessment of fracture risk. Major osteoporotic fractures comprise those at the hip, distal forearm, spine and proximal humerus. Of these, hip fractures incur the greatest burden in terms of cost, chrinic morbidity and mortality.
KeywordsOsteoporosis Bone mineral density Fragility fracture Osteopenia Hip fracture Vertebral fracture Forearm fracture Disease burden
- 3.[No authors listed]. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1994;843:1–129.Google Scholar
- 8.Kanis JA on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group. Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level. Technical Report. WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK, 2008. http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/pdfs/WHO_Technical_Report.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.
- 9.Poór G, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd. Determinants of reduced survival following hip fractures in men. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 1995;319:260–5.Google Scholar
- 16.Hernlund E, Svedbom A, Ivergård M, et al. Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. A report prepared in collaboration with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA). Arch Osteoporos. 2013;8:136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar