Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation: Practical Guide to Placement with Microelectrode Recording

  • Eric Hudgins
  • A. G. Ramayya
  • G. H. BaltuchEmail author


Chronic high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease and has been shown to be more efficacious at improving motor symptoms than medical treatment alone. This chapter will detail the effective targeting of globus pallidus interna (GPi) using a Leksell frame-based approach that relies both on anatomical guidance with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and physiological mapping with microelectrode recordings and stimulation. This multimodal approach to stereotactic localization can help overcome the challenges associated with safely and effectively targeting the GPi for DBS.


Deep brain stimulation Stereotactic Leksell frame GPi Globus pallidus 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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