Advertisement

The Respiratory System

  • T. Yee KhongEmail author

Abstract

The respiratory system comprises the lips and palate, larynx, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm, and their development and abnormalities of development are described. Pulmonary cystic disease forms one such group of developmental abnormalities and includes congenital lobar emphysema, congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation (CPAM), and pulmonary sequestration. Maturation of the lung can be terminated if delivery occurs early, leading to respiratory distress clinically, which has been ameliorated by antenatal steroids and antioxidants and postdelivery surfactant therapy. The causes and pathology of respiratory distress in the newborn are described; these include hyaline membrane disease and meconium aspiration syndrome, as well as rarer entities such as surfactant protein deficiency and alveolar capillary dysplasia. The clinical and pathology characteristics of chronic lung disease have changed over the last 20 years, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, “old” and “new,” are described.

Keywords

Development Respiratory distress Respiratory distress syndrome Hyaline membrane disease Chronic lung disease Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Meconium aspiration syndrome Pulmonary cystic disease Alveolar capillary dysplasia Lung hypoplasia Surfactant protein deficiency Persistent pulmonary hypertension 

References

  1. 1.
    Mossey PA, Little J, Munger RG, Dixon MJ, Shaw WC. Cleft lip and palate. Lancet. 2009;374:1773–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Warburton D, El-Hashash A, Carraro G, Tiozzo C, Sala F, Rogers O, et al. Lung organogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2010;90:73–158.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Galambos C, Demello DE. Regulation of alveologenesis: clinical implications of impaired growth. Pathology. 2008;40:124–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herriges M, Morrisey EE. Lung development: orchestrating the generation and regeneration of a complex organ. Development. 2014;141:502–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zimmermann LJ, Janssen DJ, Tibboel D, Hamvas A, Carnielli VP. Surfactant metabolism in the neonate. Biol Neonate. 2005;87:296–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicolini U, Fisk NM, Rodeck CH, Talbert DG, Wigglesworth JS. Low amniotic pressure in oligohydramnios – is this the cause of pulmonary hypoplasia? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161:1098–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Whitelaw A, Evans A, Corrin B. Immotile cilia syndrome: a new cause of neonatal respiratory distress. Arch Dis Child. 1981;56:432–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frank L, Sosenko IR. Development of lung antioxidant enzyme system in late gestation: possible implications for the prematurely born infant. J Pediatr. 1987;110:9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dani C, Poggi C. The role of genetic polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes and potential antioxidant therapies in neonatal lung disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;21:1863–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haworth SG. Development of the normal and hypertensive pulmonary vasculature. Exp Physiol. 1995;80:843–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gould SJ, Howard S. The histopathology of the larynx in the neonate following endotracheal intubation. J Pathol. 1985;146:301–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gifford Jr GH, Swanson L, MacCollum DW. Congenital absence of the nose and anterior nasopharynx. Report of two cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972;50:5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pagon RA, Graham Jr JM, Zonana J, Yong SL. Coloboma, congenital heart disease, and choanal atresia with multiple anomalies: charge association. J Pediatr. 1981;99:223–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wong FK, Hagg U. An update on the aetiology of orofacial clefts. Hong Kong Med J. 2004;10:331–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zucchero TM, Cooper ME, Maher BS, Daack-Hirsch S, Nepomuceno B, Ribeiro L, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) gene variants and the risk of isolated cleft lip or palate. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:769–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zaw-Tun HI. Development of congenital laryngeal atresias and clefts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1988;97:353–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schroeder Jr JW, Holinger LD. Congenital laryngeal stenosis. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2008;41:865–75, viii.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Evans KL, Courteney-Harris R, Bailey CM, Evans JN, Parsons DS. Management of posterior laryngeal and laryngotracheoesophageal clefts. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121:1380–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prowse S, Knight L. Congenital cysts of the infant larynx. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:708–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DeSanto LW, Devine KD, Weiland LH. Cysts of the larynx – classification. Laryngoscope. 1970;80:145–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arens C, Glanz H, Kleinsasser O. Clinical and morphological aspects of laryngeal cysts. Eur Arch Otolaryngol. 1997;254:430–6.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saha D, Sinha R, Pai RR, Kumar A, Chakraborti S. Laryngeal cysts in infants and children – a pathologist’s perspective (with review of literature). Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:1112–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Erickson B, Cooper T, El-Hakim H. Factors associated with the morphological type of laryngomalacia and prognostic value for surgical outcomes. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014;140:927–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Manning SC, Inglis AF, Mouzakes J, Carron J, Perkins JA. Laryngeal anatomic differences in pediatric patients with severe laryngomalacia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:340–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Landing BH, Wells TR. Tracheobronchial anomalies in children. Perspect Pediatr Pathol. 1973;1:1–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wells TR, Wells AL, Galvis DA, Senac Jr MO, Landing BH, Vachon LA. Diagnostic aspects and syndromal associations of short trachea with bronchial intubation. Am J Dis Child. 1990;144:1369–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    de Groot-van der Mooren MD, Haak MC, Lakeman P, Cohen-Overbeek TE, van der Voorn JP, Bretschneider JH, et al. Tracheal agenesis: approach towards this severe diagnosis. Case report and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:425–31.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Baets F, De Schutter I, Aarts C, Haerynck F, Van Daele S, De Wachter E, et al. Malacia, inflammation and bronchoalveolar lavage culture in children with persistent respiratory symptoms. Eur Respir J. 2012;39:392–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carden KA, Boiselle PM, Waltz DA, Ernst A. Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review. Chest. 2005;127:984–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Masurel-Paulet A, Haan E, Thompson EM, Goizet C, Thauvin-Robinet C, Tai A, et al. Lung disease associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia and an flna mutation. Eur J Med Genet. 2011;54:25–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lin AE, Krikov S, Riehle-Colarusso T, Frias JL, Belmont J, Anderka M, et al. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study (1998–2007): birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology. Am J Med Genet A. 2014;164A:2581–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Peranteau WH, Moldenhauer JS, Khalek N, Martinez-Poyer JL, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, et al. Open fetal surgery for central bronchial atresia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2014;35:141–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Maltz DL, Nadas AS. Agenesis of the lung. Presentation of eight new cases and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 1968;42:175–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kayemba-Kay’s S, Couvrat-Carcauzon V, Goua V, Podevin G, Marteau M, Sapin E, et al. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis: a report of four cases, two diagnosed antenatally and literature review. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014;49:E96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neves JR, Arrieta SR, Cavalcanti CV, Mattos SS. Pulmonary hypertension in infants linked to horseshoe lung: case report. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011;96:e116–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Davenport M, Warne SA, Cacciaguerra S, Patel S, Greenough A, Nicolaides K. Current outcome of antenally diagnosed cystic lung disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:549–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ng C, Stanwell J, Burge DM, Stanton MP. Conservative management of antenatally diagnosed cystic lung malformations. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99:432–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stocker JT. Cystic lung disease in infants and children. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2009;28:155–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cataneo DC, Rodrigues OR, Hasimoto EN, Schmidt Jr AF, Cataneo AJ. Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals. J Bras Pneumol. 2013;39:418–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    MacSweeney F, Papagiannopoulos K, Goldstraw P, Sheppard MN, Corrin B, Nicholson AG. An assessment of the expanded classification of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations and their relationship to malignant transformation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:1139–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rutledge JC, Jensen P. Acinar dysplasia: a new form of pulmonary maldevelopment. Hum Pathol. 1986;17:1290–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chambers HM. Congenital acinar aplasia: an extreme form of pulmonary maldevelopment. Pathology. 1991;23:69–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gillespie LM, Fenton AC, Wright C. Acinar dysplasia: a rare cause of neonatal respiratory failure. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:712–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clements BS, Warner JO. Pulmonary sequestration and related congenital bronchopulmonary-vascular malformations: nomenclature and classification based on anatomical and embryological considerations. Thorax. 1987;42:401–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Langston C. New concepts in the pathology of congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2003;12:17–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Srikanth MS, Ford EG, Stanley P, Mahour GH. Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: classification and embryogenesis. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27:732–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Khong TY, Keeling JW. Massive congenital mesenchymal malformation of the lung: another cause of non-immune hydrops. Histopathology. 1990;16:609–11.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reix P, Wanin S, Dijoud F, Brouard J, Epaud R, Pracros JP, et al. Diffuse chondroid malformation of the lung: cases series of a hitherto undescribed congenital lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010;45:667–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    de Krijger RR, Albers MJ, Bogers AJ, Mooi WJ. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue presenting as a solid and cystic lung lesion: a very unusual bronchopulmonary foregut malformation. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:204–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Morgan T, Anderson J, Jorden M, Keller K, Robinson T, Hintz S. Pulmonary glial heterotopia in a monoamniotic twin. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;36:162–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chi JG, Shong Y-K. Diffuse striated muscle heteroplasia of the lung. An autopsy case. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1982;106:641–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hardisson D, Garcia-Jiménez JA, Jiménez-Heffernan JA, Nistal M. Rhabdomyomatosis of the newborn lung unassociated with other malformations. Histopathology. 1997;31:474–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dishop MK, McKay EM, Kreiger PA, Priest JR, Williams GM, Langston C, et al. Fetal lung interstitial tumor (FLIT): a proposed newly recognized lung tumor of infancy to be differentiated from cystic pleuropulmonary blastoma and other developmental pulmonary lesions. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1762–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bishop NB, Stankiewicz P, Steinhorn RH. Alveolar capillary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:172–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sen P, Yang Y, Navarro C, Silva I, Szafranski P, Kolodziejska KE, et al. Novel foxf1 mutations in sporadic and familial cases of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary veins imply a role for its DNA binding domain. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:801–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Galambos C, Sims-Lucas S, Ali N, Gien J, Dishop MK, Abman SH. Intrapulmonary vascular shunt pathways in alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins. Thorax. 2015;70:84–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reiterer F, Grossauer K, Morris N, Uhrig S, Resch B. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2014;15:275–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bellini C, Boccardo F, Campisi C, Bonioli E. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2006;1:43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wigglesworth JS, Desai R. Is fetal respiratory function a major determinant of perinatal survival? Lancet. 1982;1:264–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    De Paepe ME, Friedman RM, Gundogan F, Pinar H. Postmortem lung weight/body weight standards for term and preterm infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005;40:445–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Askenazi SS, Perlman M. Pulmonary hypoplasia: lung weight and radial alveolar count as criteria of diagnosis. Arch Dis Child. 1979;54:614–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wigglesworth JS, Desai R. Use of DNA estimation for growth assessment in normal and hypoplastic fetal lungs. Arch Dis Child. 1981;56:601–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    De Paepe ME, Shapiro S, Hansen K, Gündoğan F. Postmortem lung volume/body weight standards for term and preterm infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014;49:60–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Szpinda M, Siedlaczek W, Szpinda A, Woźniak A, Mila-Kierzenkowska C, Wiśniewski M. Volumetric growth of the lungs in human fetuses: an anatomical, hydrostatic and statistical study. Surg Radiol Anat: SRA. 2014;36:813–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Emery JL, Mithal A. The number of alveoli in the terminal respiratory unit of man during late intrauterine life and childhood. Arch Dis Child. 1960;35:544–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Haidar A, Ryder TA, Wigglesworth JS. Epithelial cell morphology and airspace size in hypoplastic human fetal lungs associated with oligohydramnios. Pediatr Pathol. 1991;11:839–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wilcox DT, Glick PL, Karamanoukian HL, Holm BA. Contributions by individual lungs to the surfactant status in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res. 1997;41:686–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liggins GC, Vilos GA, Campos GA, Kitterman JA, Lee CH. The effect of bilateral thoracoplasty on lung development in fetal sheep. J Dev Physiol. 1981;3:275–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wigglesworth JS. Pathology of the lung in the fetus and neonate, with particular reference to problems of growth and maturation. Histopathology. 1987;11:671–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nimrod C, Varela-Gittings F, Machin G, Campbell D, Wesenberg R. The effect of very prolonged membrane rupture on fetal development. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984;148:540–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Silver MM, Thurston WA, Patrick JE. Perinatal pulmonary hyperplasia due to laryngeal atresia. Hum Pathol. 1988;19:110–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wigglesworth JS, Desai R, Hislop AA. Fetal lung growth in congenital laryngeal atresia. Pediatr Pathol. 1987;7:515–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ruano R, da Silva MM, Campos JA, Papanna R, Moise Jr K, Tannuri U, et al. Fetal pulmonary response after fetoscopic tracheal occlusion for severe isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119:93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Swischuk LE, Richardson C, Nichols MM, Ingman MJ. Primary pulmonary hypoplasia in the neonate. J Pediatr. 1979;95:573–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Page DV, Stocker JT. Anomalies associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125:216–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tovar JA. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012;7:1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Edwards MO, Kotecha SJ, Kotecha S. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2013;14:29–36, quiz 36-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hibbard JU, Wilkins I, Sun L, Gregory K, Haberman S, Hoffman M, et al. Respiratory morbidity in late preterm births. JAMA. 2010;304:419–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pinar H, Makarova N, Rubin LP, Singer DB. Pathology of the lung in surfactant-treated neonates. Pediatr Pathol. 1994;14:627–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Thornton CM, Halliday HL, O’Hara MD. Surfactant replacement therapy in preterm neonates: a comparison of postmortem pulmonary histology in treated and untreated infants. Pediatr Pathol. 1994;14:945–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gould SJ. The respiratory system. In: Keeling JW, Khong TY, editors. Fetal and neonatal pathology. 4th ed. London: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    DeMello DE. Pulmonary pathology. Semin Neonatol: SN. 2004;9:311–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Avery ME, Gatewood OB, Brumley G. Transient tachypnea of newborn. Possible delayed resorption of fluid at birth. Am J Dis Child. 1966;111:380–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pifferi M, Di Cicco M, Piras M, Cangiotti AM, Saggese G. Up to date on primary ciliary dyskinesia in children. Early Hum Dev. 2013;89:S45–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Coffin CM, Schechtman K, Cole FS, Dehner LP. Neonatal and infantile pulmonary hemorrhage: an autopsy study with clinical correlation. Pediatr Pathol. 1993;13:583–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Monen L, Hasaart TH, Kuppens SM. The aetiology of meconium-stained amniotic fluid: pathologic hypoxia or physiologic foetal ripening? (review). Early Hum Dev. 2014;90:325–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hutton EK, Thorpe J. Consequences of meconium stained amniotic fluid: what does the evidence tell us? Early Hum Dev. 2014;90:333–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ardissone AN, de la Cruz DM, Davis-Richardson AG, Rechcigl KT, Li N, Drew JC, et al. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth. PLoS One. 2014;9:e90784.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hamvas A. Inherited surfactant protein-b deficiency and surfactant protein-c associated disease: clinical features and evaluation. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30:316–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shulenin S, Nogee LM, Annilo T, Wert SE, Whitsett JA, Dean M. ABCA3 gene mutations in newborns with fatal surfactant deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1296–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bullard JE, Wert SE, Nogee LM. ABCA3 deficiency: neonatal respiratory failure and interstitial lung disease. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30:327–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gower WA, Wert SE, Ginsberg JS, Golan A, Whitsett JA, Nogee LM. Fatal familial lung disease caused by ABCA3 deficiency without identified ABCA3 mutations. J Pediatr. 2010;157:62–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Maquet E, Costagliola S, Parma J, Christophe-Hobertus C, Oligny LL, Fournet JC, et al. Lethal respiratory failure and mild primary hypothyroidism in a term girl with a de novo heterozygous mutation in the TITF1/NKX2.1 gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cazzato S, di Palmo E, Ragazzo V, Ghione S. Interstitial lung disease in children. Early Hum Dev. 2013;89:S39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Northway Jr WH, Rosan RC, Porter DY. Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline-membrane disease. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 1967;276:357–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jobe AH, Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:1723–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Taghizadeh A, Reynolds EO. Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia following hyaline membrane disease. Am J Pathol. 1976;82:241–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hislop AA, Haworth SG. Airway size and structure in the normal fetal and infant lung and the effect of premature delivery and artificial ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;140:1717–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hislop AA, Haworth SG. Pulmonary vascular damage and the development of cor pulmonale following hyaline membrane disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1990;9:152–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Coalson JJ. Pathology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30:179–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hadchouel A, Franco-Montoya ML, Delacourt C. Altered lung development in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014;100:158–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Chess PR, D’Angio CT, Pryhuber GS, Maniscalco WM. Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30:171–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Madurga A, Mižiková I, Ruiz-Camp J, Morty RE. Recent advances in late lung development and the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L893–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    STOP-ROP. Supplemental therapeutic oxygen for prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (STOP-ROP), a randomized, controlled trial. I: primary outcomes. Pediatrics. 2000;105:295–310.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Viscardi RM. Perinatal inflammation and lung injury. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;17:30–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gould SJ, Isaacson PG. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (balt) in human fetal and infant lung. J Pathol. 1993;169:229–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lamont RF, Taylor-Robinson D, Wigglesworth JS, Furr PM, Evans RT, Elder MG. The role of mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydiae in the genital tract of women presenting in spontaneous early preterm labour. J Med Microbiol. 1987;24:253–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ablow RC, Driscoll SG, Effmann EL, Gross I, Jolles CJ, Uauy R, et al. A comparison of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection and the respiratory-distress syndrome of the newborn. N Engl J Med. 1976;294:65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Teplitz C. Pathogenesis of pseudomonas vasculitis and septic legions. Arch Pathol. 1965;80:297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Khong TY, Frappell JM, Steel HM, Stewart CM, Burke M. Perinatal listeriosis. A report of six cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;93:1083–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oppenheimer EH, Dahms BB. Congenital syphilis in the fetus and neonate. Perspect Pediatr Pathol. 1981;6:115–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Whyte RK, Hussain Z, deSa D. Antenatal infections with candida species. Arch Dis Child. 1982;57:528–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Coclite E, Di Natale C, Nigro G. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus lung infection. J Matern-Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26:1671–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Klein MI, Coviello S, Bauer G, Benitez A, Serra ME, Schiatti MP, et al. The impact of infection with human metapneumovirus and other respiratory viruses in young infants and children at high risk for severe pulmonary disease. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1544–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hallman M, Haataja R. Surfactant protein polymorphisms and neonatal lung disease. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30:350–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Abzug MJ, Beam AC, Gyorkos EA, Levin MJ. Viral pneumonia in the first month of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990;9:881–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of AdelaideNorth AdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity of AdelaideNorth AdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Department of HistopathologyWomen’s & Children’s HospitalNorth AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations