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Abstract

Preterm birth is defined as delivery less than 37 weeks’ gestational age. The rate of preterm birth varies around the world and differs between developed and developing countries. It is 12–13 % in the United States of America (USA), 5–9 % in Europe, 9 % in Australia, and as high as 18 % in some countries in Africa. In developed countries the increased rate of preterm birth has been attributed to the changing demographics of childbearing. The mean age of childbearing has increased over the years with the average age of primiparous women in Australia now 28.3 years of age and the percentage of first-time mothers over 35 years of age in the USA now 4 %. Delayed childbearing is associated with a number of risk factors including preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Infertility with the resultant use of in vitro fertilization methods and consequent twins/triplets are also significant issues. Another major risk factor for preterm birth is maternal obesity, which is increasing in both developed and developing countries. Complications of maternal obesity include maternal and fetal death, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and congenital abnormalities.

Keywords

Prematurity Preterm birth Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) Spontaneous preterm birth Tocolytics Antenatal steroids Preeclampsia Diabetes Fetal growth restriction (FGR) Small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetus Hypotension Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) Chronic lung disease (CLD) Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) Air leak syndromes Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) Pneumothorax Pneumomediastinum Pneumopericardium Pneumoperitoneum Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Acute kidney injury Intraventricular hemorrhage Periventricular leukomalacia Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyCentenary Hospital for Women and Children, Canberra HospitalWodenAustralia

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