Levamisole-Associated Vasculopathy and Vasculitis

  • Grant Ghahramani


Levamisole, a veterinary anti-helminthic, is a commonly used adulterant for illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin).


Levamisole Purpura Vasculitis Vasculopathy Cocaine 

Suggested Readings

  1. 1.
    Waller JM, Feramisco JD, Alberta-Wszolek L, McCalmont TH, Fox LP. Cocaine-associated retiform purpura and neutropenia: is levamisole the culprit? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(3):530–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Rongioletti F, Ghio L, Ginevri F, Bleidl D, Rinaldi S, Edefonti A, Gambini C, Rizzoni G, Rebora A. Purpura of the ears: a distinctive vasculopathy with circulating autoantibodies complicating long-term treatment with levamisole in children. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140(5):948–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chung C, Tumeh PC, Birnbaum R, Tan BH, Sharp L, McCoy E, Mercurio MG, Craft N. Characteristic purpura of the ears, vasculitis, and neutropenia—a potential public health epidemic associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(4):722–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grant Ghahramani
    • 1
  1. 1.Cotton O’Neil DermatologyTopekaUSA

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