Fluorescence Imaging Systems (PDE, HyperEye Medical System, and Prototypes in Japan)

  • Takeaki Ishizawa
  • Norihiro KokudoEmail author


Clinical application of fluorescence-guided surgery using indocyanine green has been expanded with the advances in imaging techniques and distribution of fluorescence imaging systems on the market. We describe the history of the development and characteristics of fluorescence imaging systems for clinical use that are currently available in Japan: PDE®, HyperEye Medical System, and other prototype laparoscopic imaging systems.


Fluorescence imaging Imaging system Indocyanine green Navigation surgery 


Financial Disclosure: The authors have no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. This includes employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, and royalties. No writing assistance was used in the production of this manuscript.

Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants from the Takeda Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, Technology of Japan, and the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan, and Global Leader Program for Social Design and Management.

Supplementary material

Video 7.1

Identification of primary and secondary liver cancer during hepatectomy by the series of PDE® systems (WMV 76,462 kb)

Video 7.2

Intraoperative real-time identification of disseminated nodules caused by percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma using the HyperEye Medical System (WMV 63,227 kb)

Video 7.3

Fluorescence cholangiography using the HyperEye Medical System during donor right hepatectomy (WMV 61,351 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute HospitalJapanese Foundation for Cancer ResearchKoto-kuJapan
  2. 2.Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of MedicineUniversity of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan

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