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Real-Time Visualisation and Analysis of Internal Examinations – Seeing the Unseen

  • Alejandro Granados
  • Niels Hald
  • Aimee Di Marco
  • Shahla Ahmed
  • Naomi Low-Beer
  • Jenny Higham
  • Roger Kneebone
  • Fernando Bello
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8673)

Abstract

Internal examinations such as Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and bimanual Vaginal Examination (BVE) are routinely performed for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. Although they are recognised as core skills to be taught on a medical curriculum, they are difficult to learn and teach due to their unsighted nature. We present a framework that combines a visualisation and analysis tool with position and pressure sensors to enable the study of internal examinations and provision of real-time feedback. This approach is novel as it allows for real-time continuous trajectory and pressure data to be obtained for the complete examination, which may be used for teaching and assessment. Experiments were conducted performing DRE and BVE on benchtop models, and BVE on Gynaecological Teaching Assistants (GTA). The results obtained suggest that the proposed methodology may provide an insight into what constitutes an adequate DRE or BVE, provide real-time feedback tools for learning and assessment, and inform haptics-based simulator design.

Keywords

Internal Examinations Digital Rectal Examination Bimanual Vaginal Examination Prostate Cancer Rectal Cancer Vaginal Abnormalities Cervix Abnormalities 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Granados
    • 1
  • Niels Hald
    • 1
  • Aimee Di Marco
    • 2
  • Shahla Ahmed
    • 2
  • Naomi Low-Beer
    • 2
  • Jenny Higham
    • 2
  • Roger Kneebone
    • 1
  • Fernando Bello
    • 1
  1. 1.Simulation and Modelling in Medicine and Surgery, Department of Surgery and CancerSt. Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College LondonUK
  2. 2.Imperial College Healthcare NHS TrustSt. Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College LondonUK

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