Bio-composting Oil Palm Waste for Improvement of Soil Fertility

  • A. W. Gandahi
  • M. M. HanafiEmail author
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 3)


Sources of bio-compost as agro-industrial wastes includes wide range of oil palm wastes viz. waste, biomass, palm kernels, empty fruit bunch, mill effluent, trunk and frond compost. Various composting processes are summarized in brief with distinct reference of oil–palm composting covering aerated static pile, and co-composting with earthworms (vermicomposting). However, in-vessel composting and windrow composting has meritorious advantages in composting. This review article refers to various significant roles played by microorganisms associated. Noteworthy study of bio-compost applications and procedures are correspondingly glosses framework of ecological, economical and agro-ecosystemic benefits.


Agro-industrial waste Composting process Co-composting Inorganic fertilizer Organic fertilizer 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Crop ProductionSindh Agriculture UniversityTandojamPakistan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Plantation Crops, Institute of Tropical Agriculture/Department of Land Management, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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