Social Media Effects on the Gezi Park Movement in Turkey: Politics Under Hashtags
This study aims at understanding the role of social media in the Gezi Park movement in Turkey. The movement started as a protest of an environmentalist group then it turned into a social-political movement. The protestors were opposed to the project of re-building Gezi Park and Taksim Square that is the public area at the center of Istanbul. Politicians, demonstrators, the public and media have agreed on the fact that social media had a significant role in this movement. Social media, especially Twitter, was regarded as the main reason of this movement. The effect of social media on politics on the development of social movements and political participation is often evaluated as an important topic in current academic studies. This study contributes to this literature by focusing on the role of social media in the Gezi Park movement. The analysis consists of Twitter functions, Twitter actors as users, and the forms of communication on Twitter.
KeywordsSocial media Twitter Political participation Social movements
- Bennett, W. L., & Entman, M. (2001). Mediated politics: An introduction. In W. L. Bennett & M. Entman (Eds.), Mediated politics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Bennett, W. L., & Segerberg, A. (2012). Digital media and the personalization of collective action – social technology and the organization of protests against the global economic crisis. In B. D. Loader & D. Mercea (Eds.), Social media and democracy. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Blog.milliyet (2013). Prime Minister’s explanations about the demonstrators. http://blog.milliyet.com.tr/capulcu-modasi/Blog/?BlogNo=418570 Accessed 15 June 2013.
- Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1).Google Scholar
- Çakır, D., & Demirhan, K. (2011). Political character of the social actions in the process of globalization: A case study. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 3(2), 159–168.Google Scholar
- Castells, M. (2011). A network theory of power. International Journal of Communication, 5, 773–787.Google Scholar
- Cihan. (2013a). Prime Minister’s explanations about the rebuilding of Taksim http://www.cihan.com.tr/news/Basbakan-Erdogan-Taksim-e-yapilacak-caminin-yerini-acikladi-CHMTA0NDU4My8x Accessed 06 June 2013.
- Cihan. (2013b). Prime Minister’s explanations. http://www.cihan.com.tr/news/Basbakan-Erdogan-Gezi-Parki-ndaki-eylemcilere-yarina-kadar-sure-tanidi-CHMTA2MDA1NS8xMDA1 Accessed 06 June 2013.
- Cihan. (2013c). The standing-man. http://www.cihan.com.tr/news/-Duran-Adam-a-374-haber-sitesi-5-gazete-yer-verdi-CHMTA2MTU5OC8x Accessed 19 June2013.
- Cnnturk. (2013). The number of tweets. http://www.cnnturk.com/2013/bilim.teknoloji/teknoloji/06/15/gezi.parki.tweetlerinin.linguistigi/711774.0/index.html Accessed 16 June 2013.
- Comscore. (2012). The Netherlands Ranks #1 Worldwide in Penetration for Twitter and Linkedin.http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2011/4/The_Netherlands_Ranks_number_one_Worldwide_in_Penetration_for_Twitter_and_LinkedIn Accessed 13 Feb 2012.
- Della Porta, D. (2012). Communication in movement - social movements as agents of participatory democracy. In B. D. Loader & D. Mercea (Eds.), Social media and democracy. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Demirhan, K. (2013). Relationship between social media and political parties: The case of Turkey. In A. M. G. Solo (Ed.), Political campaigning in the information age. Hershey, PV: IGI Global.Google Scholar
- ecktr (2013). The number of tweets in the hashtags. http://ecktr.com/ Accessed 20 June 2013.
- Fenton, N., & Downey, J. (2003). Counter public spheres and global modernity. The Public, 10(1), 15–32.Google Scholar
- Gerring, J. (2004). What is a case study and what is it good for? American Political Science Review, 98(2).Google Scholar
- gundem.milliyet (2013). The results of events. http://gundem.milliyet.com.tr/3-u-agir-toplam-3-bin-500-yarali/gundem/detay/1718297/default.htm Accessed 04 June 2013.
- Hauben, M., & Hauben, R. (1997). Netizens. London: Wiley/IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
- Hürriyet. (2013a). About the people were arrested by police in İzmir. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/23438875.asp. Accessed 06 June 2013.
- Hürriyet. (2013b). The explanations of the Prime Minister. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/23429709.asp. Accessed 06 June 2013.
- Insanhaber. (2013). The results of events. http://www.insanhaber.com/guncel/21-gunun-bilancosu-4-olu-7822-yarali-h16629.html. Accessed 18 June 2013.
- Macintosh, A. (2004). Characterizing E-participation in policy-making. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.Google Scholar
- Memurlar.net (2013). The results of events. http://www.memurlar.net/haber/378927/. Accessed 04 June 2013.
- Small, T. A. (2012). What the Hashtag? A content analysis of Canadian politics on Twitter. In B. D. Loader & D. Mercea (Eds.), Social media and democracy. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Socialdigger. (2013). The number of tweets in the hashtags. http://www.socialdigger.org/geziparki/ Accessed 23 June 2013
- Quinn, S., & Lamble, S. (2008). Online newsgathering research and reporting for journalism. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Twitter. (2013). About Twitter. https://twitter.com/about Accessed 04 June
- twitturk (2013). The standing man. http://twitturk.com/tweet/search?q=duranadam Accessed 23 June 2013.
- Yurtgazetesi. (2013). About the broadcasting animal documentary on the prestigious news channel “CNNTurk” http://www.yurtgazetesi.com.tr/gundem/cnnturke-sevgiler-h36551.html Accessed 15 June 2013.