Understanding the Smart City Domain: A Literature Review
Smart cities appeared in literature in the late 1990s and various approaches have been developed so far. Until today, smart city does not describe a city with particular attributes but it is used to describe different cases in urban spaces: web portals that virtualize cities or city guides, knowledge bases that address local needs, agglomerations with information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure that attract business relocation, metropolitan-wide ICT infrastructures that deliver e-services to the citizens, ubiquitous environments, and recently ICT infrastructure for ecological use. Researchers, practicians, businessmen, and policy makers consider smart city from different perspectives and most of them agree on a model that measures urban economy, mobility, environment, living, people, and governance. On the other hand, ICT and construction industries stress to capitalize smart city and a new market seems to be generated in this domain. This chapter aims to perform a literature review, discover and classify the particular schools of thought, universities and research centres as well as companies that deal with smart city domain and discover alternative approaches, models, architectures, and frameworks with this regard.
KeywordsSmart city Literature review Models Frameworks Architectures Smart growth Digital city
This research has been cofinanced by the EU (European Social Fund, ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)—Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.
- Akçura, M. T., & Avci, S. V. (2014). How to make global cities: Information communication technologies and macro-level variables. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 68–79.Google Scholar
- Alcatel—Lucent. (2012). Getting smart about smart cities: Understanding the oarket opportunity in the cities of tomorrow. http://www2.alcatel-lucent.com/knowledge-center/public_files/Smart_Cities_Market_opportunity_MarketAnalysis.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2013.
- Anthopoulos, L., & Fitsilis P. (2013). Using classification and roadmapping techniques for smart city viability’s realization. Electronic Journal of e-Government, 11(1), 326–336, ISSN1479-439X.Google Scholar
- Anthopoulos, L., & Vakali, A., (2012). Urban planning and smart cities: Interrelations and reciprocities. In Alvarez, F. et al. (Eds.), Future Internet assembly 2012: From promises to reality. 4th FIA book LNCS 7281. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Arribas-Bel, D. (2014). Accidental, open and everywhere: Emerging data sources for the understanding of cities. Applied Geography, 49, 45 –53..Google Scholar
- Bulu, M. (2014). Upgrading a city via technology. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 63 –67.Google Scholar
- CISCO. (2011). European city connects citizens and businesses for economic growth. http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/scc/cisco_amsterdam_cs.pdf. Accessed 6 Feb 2014.
- Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J. R., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., Pardo, T. A., & Scholl, H. J. (2012). Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. In Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.Google Scholar
- Cosgrave, E., Arbuthnot, K., & Tryfonas, T. (2013). Living labs, innovation districts and information marketplaces: A systems approach for smart cities. In Paredis, C. J. J., Bishop, C., & Bodner, D. (Eds), Proceedings of conference on systems engineering research (CSER 13) (pp. 669–677).Google Scholar
- Dobre, C., & Xhafa, F. (2014). Intelligent services for big data science. Future Generation Computer Systems, 37, 267–281.Google Scholar
- Giffinger, R., C., Fertner, H., Kramar Meijers, E., & Pichler-Milanovic, N. (2007). Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities. http://www.smart-cities.eu/download/smart_cities_final_report.pdf. Accessed Dec 2013.
- Hitachi. (2013). Hitachi’s vision of the smart city. http://www.hitachi.com/products/smartcity/download/pdf/whitepaper.pdf. Accessed Nov 2013.
- IBM Institute for Business Value. (2009). How smart is your city? Helping cities measure progress. http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/global/files/uk__en_uk__cities__ibm_sp_pov_smartcity.pdf. Accessed 6 Feb 2014.
- Kim S. A., Shin, D., Choe, Y., Seibert T., & Walz, S. P. (2012). Integrated energy monitoring and visualization system for smart green city development designing a spatial information integrated energy monitoring model in the context of massive data management on a web based platform. Automation in Construction, 22, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Komninos, N. (2002). Intelligent cities: Innovation, knowledge systems and digital spaces (1st ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kramers, A., Hojer, M., Lovehagen, N., & Wangel, J. (2014). Smart sustainable cities: Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities. Environmental modelling & software, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
- Lee, J., & Oh, J. (2008). New Songdo city and the value of flexibility: A case study of implementation and analysis of a mega-scale project. Postgraduate dissertation, Master of Science in Real Estate Development, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/58657/317296469.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 29 Oct 2013.
- Lee, J. H., Phaal, R., & Lee, S. H. (2013). An integrated service-device-technology roadmap for smart city development. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 80, 286 –306.Google Scholar
- Lee, J. H., Hancock, M. G., & Hu, M-C. (2014). Towards an effective framework for building smart cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 80–99.Google Scholar
- Lindsay, G. (2010). Cisco’s big bet on new songdo: creating cities from scratch. Fastcompany. http://www.fastcompany.com/1514547/ciscos-big-bet-new-songdo-creating-cities-scratch. Accessed 5 Feb 2014
- Malecki, E. J. (2014). Connecting the fragments: Looking at the connected city in 2050. Applied Geography, 49, 12 –17.Google Scholar
- Marletto, G., (2014). Car and the city: Socio-technical transition pathways to 2030. Technological Forecasting & Social Change. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2013.12.013.
- Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Senach, B., Scaffers, H., & Komninos, N. (2011). Future Internet and living lab research domain landscapes: Filling the gap between technology push and application pull in the context of smart cities. In P. Cunningham & M. Cunningham (Eds), eChallenges e-2011 Conference Proceedings, IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2011.Google Scholar
- Paroutis, S., Bennett, M., & Heracleous, L. (2014). A strategic view on smart city technology: The case of IBM Smarter Cities during a recession. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 262 –272.Google Scholar
- Sanchez, L., Galache, J.A., Gutierrez, V., Hernandez, J., Bernat, J., Gluhak, A., & Garcia, T. (2011). Smartsantander: The meeting point between future internet research and experimentation and the smart cities. In the Proceedings of the IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), Warsaw, Poland.Google Scholar
- Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students, 5th Edition. Pearson Education, Rotolito Lombarda, Italy.Google Scholar
- Van Bastelaer, B. (1998). Digital cities and transferability of results. In the Proceedings of the 4th EDC Conference on Digital Cities.Google Scholar
- Vollaro, R. D. L., Evangelisti, L., Carnieloa, E., Battista, G., Gori, P., Guattari, C. & Fanchiotti, A. (2014). An integrated approach for an historical buildings energy analysis in a smart cities perspective. In the Proceedings of the 68th Conference of the Italian Thermal Machines Engineering Association, ATI2013, Energy Procedia, 373–378.Google Scholar
- Wang, L., & Wu, H. (2002). A framework of integrating digital city and eco-city. school of business, China: Hubei University. www.hku.hk/cupem/asiagis/fall03/Full_Paper/Wang_Lu.pdf. Accessed 28 Oct 2013Google Scholar
- Yamagata, Y., & Seya, H. (2013). Simulating a future smart city: An integrated land use-energy model. Applied Energy, 112, 1466–1474.Google Scholar
- Yigitcanlar, T., & Lee, S. H. (2014). Korean ubiquitous-eco-city: A smart-sustainable urban form or a branding hoax? Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 100 –114.Google Scholar