Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Fluorophore-Labelled Reducing Saccharides: A Review

  • Peter Jackson
Part of the BioMethods book series (BIOMETHODS)


Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is the standard method for the analytical separation of proteins and for DNA sequencing. In contrast, PAGE has been little used for carbohydrates, and a wide variety of other separation methods are in common use, such as thin-layer chromatography (1), gel permeation chromatography using either soft gels (2) or various forms of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) (3,4) and capillary electrophoresis (5). However, some workers have applied PAGE for saccharide separations; for instance, Gallagher and co-workers (6,7) separated glycosaminoglycans (see Chapter 13), and Das and Henderson (8) demonstrated the separation of oligosaccharides by PAGE. One possible reason for the lack of application of PAGE in this field is that it is usually used to separate relatively large molecules and requires adaptation for high-resolution separations of small molecules such as those of particular interest to glycobiologists. Moreover, small molecules can present problems in detection when employing post-electrophoretic staining methods, and it is common to label such substances before electrophoresis with either a suitable dye or fluorophore or radioisotope. By incorporating a pre-separation fluorophore-labelling strategy, PAGE can now be adapted for the analysis of reducing saccharides. This method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labelled saccharides (PAGEFS) [also called fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) in its commercial format], described in this chapter, is a novel addition to carbohydrate separation techniques in which saccharides that have a reducing terminal (aldose) are separated by PAGE after derivatization by a suitable fluorophore (9–24).


High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Cold Trap Wheat Starch High Pressure Liquid Chro Patent Publication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    White CA and Kennedy JF (1986) Oligosac-charides. In: M. F. Chaplin and J. Kennedy: Carbohydrate Analysis: A Practical Approach, p. 37, IRL Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kobata, A Yamashita, K and Takasaki, S (1987) Methods Enzymol. 138: 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hicks KB (1988) Adv. Carb. Chem. Biochem. 46: 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Townsend RR, Hardy MR and Lee YC (1989) Methods Enzymol. 179: 65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oefner PJ and Chiesa C (1994) Glycobiology 4: 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hampson, IN and Gallagher, JT (1984) Biochem. J. 221: 697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Turnbull, TE and Gallagher, JT (1988) Biochem. J. 251: 597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Das OP and Henderson J (1986) Anal Biochem. 158: 390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jackson P (1990) Biochem. J. 270: 705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jackson P and Williams GR (1990) Electrophoresis 12: 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jackson P (1991) Anal. Biochem. 196: 238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stack RJ and Sullivan MT (1992) Glycobiology 2: 85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee K-B, Al-Hakim A, Loganathan D and Linhardt RJ (1991) Carbohydr. Res. 214: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jackson P and Williams GR (1988) Analysis of Carbohydrates, Patent Publication no. W088 /10422.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jackson P (1991) Analysis of Carbohydrates, Patent Publication no. W091 /05256.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jackson P (1991) Treatment of Carbohy-drates, Patent Publication no. W091 /05265.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jackson P (1992) Analysis of Carbohydrates, Patent Publication no. W092 /11531.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jackson P (1993) Analysis of Carbohydrates, Patent Publication no. W093 /02356.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jackson P (1993) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 21, 121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jackson P (1994) Methods Enzymol. 230: 250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jackson P (1994) Anal. Biochem. 216: 243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jackson P (1994) The analysis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In: M. J. Dunn and B. Radola (eds) Advances in Electrophoresis, A. Chrambach, vol. 7 p. 225, VCH, Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jackson P (1994) Electrophoresis 15: 896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hu G-F, Vallee BL (1994). Anal. Biochem. 218: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garfin DE Methods Enzymol. (1990) 182: 425.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laemmli UK (1970) Nature (London), 227: 680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Jackson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations