A Programmable Coprocessor Model of Human Cognition: Implications for Human Factors, Systems Interaction, and Healthcare

  • John N. CelonaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1207)


Decades of work have explored Type 1 (intuitive) and Type 2 (logical) thinking in people. We suggest the two work together to form a programmable co-processor which guides the way people understand and act. This model has profound implications for Human Factors design and can be applied to design how to improve quality in systems. This process affects how rapidly and readily people can operate systems or devices, and whether they will interact with them as intended or make errors due to (1) erroneous pattern matching with previous learning; (2) difficulty in creating the necessary new habits because they are so difficult, novel, or contrary to familiar behavior; or (3) cognitive overload. Lack of this perspective cripples quality in healthcare. Simple improvements could make dramatic improvements in healthcare quality and reductions in cost.


Human Factors Human-systems integration Healthcare System design Quality 


  1. 1.
    Bekoff, M., Pierce, J.: The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, pp. viii–ix. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1981)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Celona, J.N.: Evolutionary ethics: a potentially helpful framework in engineering a better society. In: Abbas, A.E. (ed.) Next Generation Ethics: Engineering a Better Society. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2020)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Press, E.: The Wounds of the Drone Warrior. The New York Times Magazine, New York (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bekoff, M., Pierce, J.: Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Kahneman, D.: Thinking: Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Celona, J.N.: Winning at Litigation through Decision Analysis: Creating and Executing Winning Strategies in any Litigation or Dispute. Springer Nature, Switzerland (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deming, W.E.: Out of the Crisis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Makary, M.A., Daniel, M.: Medical error—the third leading cause of death in the US. Br. Med. J.: BMJ 353, i2139 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    John Hopkins Medicine: Study Suggests Medical Errors Now Third Leading Cause of Death in the U.S. Press Release. John Hopkins Medicine, 3 May (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Exhibit 19. HCUP estimates of the total number of target procedures. Content last reviewed April 2018. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Decision Analysis Associates, LLCSan CarlosUSA

Personalised recommendations