An Approach to Aerospace Design Integrating Crew Resource Management in Operational Environments

  • Tiziano BernardEmail author
  • William A. Tuccio
  • Sebastien Boulnois
  • Aleksandar Tasic
  • Lucas Stephane
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1212)


The integration of crew resource management into the product design process for aerospace systems is discussed. Human-centered design methods - which can include human in the loop simulations, rapid prototyping, problem definition, evaluations, and verifications - often rely on operational knowledge of expert users to address human-systems integration needs. Modern integration efforts attempt to reduce the divide between user intentions and system state allowing for a safer system operation. However, in a multi-crew environment, crew interactions ought to be heavily taken into consideration. For this reason, crew resource management is recommended as a training supplement to both aerospace designers/researchers and expert users.


Human factors Human-systems integration Crew resource management Line operational simulations Aerospace design process 



Disclaimer: Any views, opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this document are the authors’ and do not necessarily reflect the views of Garmin International, Round Feather, or the Institutt for Energiteknikk.


  1. 1.
    Sumwalt, R.L., Landsberg, B., Homendy, J.: Assumptions used in the safety assessment process and the effects of multiple alerts and indications on pilot performance. Safety recommendation report, National Transportation Safety Board. Washington, D.C. (2019)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moak, L., McDew, D.W., Haskins, G., Hylander, K., Grizzle, D.: Official report of the special committee to review the federal aviation administration’s aircraft certification process. Official report, Department of Transportation. Washington, D.C. (2020)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leifer, L., Meinel, C., Plattner, H.: Design Thinking: Understand - Improve - Apply. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernard, T., Stephane, L.: Human-systems integration methods in flight test: a consolidated framework for sociotechnical modeling during critical phases of flight in general aviation. In: Society of Flight Test Engineers 48th Annual Symposium (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernard, T., Stephane, L., Boy, G.A.: Autonomous stall recovery dynamics as a prevention tool for general aviation loss of control. In: Stanton, N.A. (ed.) International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics 2017, vol. 597, pp. 38–47. Springer, Heidelberg (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andre, A.D., Wickens, C.D.: Information processing and perceptual characteristics of display design: the role of emergent features and objects. Technical memorandum, United States Army Human Engineering Laboratory (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Federal Aviation Administration: Crew Resource Management Training. Advisory Circular 120-51E. Washington, D.C. (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hutchins, E., Klausen, T.: Distributed cognition in an airline cockpit. In: Engestrom, Y., Middleton, D. (eds.) Cognition and Communication at Work, pp. 15–34. Cambridge University Press, New York (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stolzer, A.J., Halford, C.D., Goglia, J.J.: Safety management systems in aviation. Ashgate, Burlington (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation Incident Final Report CEN11IA615. Washington, D.C. (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation Incident Final Report ERA11IA316. Washington, D.C. (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    NetJets Association of Shared Aircraft Pilots [NJASAP]: Party submission of NJASAP to the NTSB 749QS Stewart-Newburgh, New York, ERA11IA316, National Transportation Safety Board Public Docket (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gulfstream Aerospace: G550 outfitting check flight accident: Gulfstream party submission, CEN11FA193, National Transportation Safety Board Public Docket (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority [PCAA-SIB]: Investigation Report: Air Blue flight AQB-2020 A-321 Reg AP-BJB Pakistan crashed on 28 July 2010 at Margalla Hills, Islamabad. Pakistan (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Federal Aviation Administration.: Flightcrew Member Line Operational Simulations: Line-Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation. Advisory Circular 120-35D. Washington, D.C. (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Merritt, A., Klinect, J.: Defensive Flying for Pilots: An Introduction to Threat and Error Management. The University of Texas Human Factors Research Project (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stephane, L.: User behavior patterns: gathering, analysis, simulation and prediction. In: Kurosu, M. (ed.) Human Centered Design. LNCS, vol. 5619, pp. 322–331. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stephane, L.: Visual patterns in civil aircraft cockpits. In: Proceedings of Human Computer Interaction Aero, Seattle, pp. 20–22 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stephane, L.: Eye tracking from a human factors perspective. In: Boy, G.A. (ed.) The Handbook of Human-Machine Interaction: A Human-Centered Design Approach, pp. 339–364. Ashgate, Burlington (2012)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hildebrandt, M., Langstrand, J.P., Nguyen, H.T.: Synopticon: a real-time data fusion platform for behavioral research. In: AutomotiveUI 2019: 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Utrecht, Netherlands, pp. 494–497 (2019)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Plattner, H., Leifer, L., Meinel, C.: Design Thinking Research: Building Innovators. Springer, Cham (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boulnois, S., Stephane, L.: Human-centered design of a 3D-augmented strategic weather management system: first design loops. In: Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, pp. 555–575. Springer, Cham (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiziano Bernard
    • 1
    Email author
  • William A. Tuccio
    • 1
  • Sebastien Boulnois
    • 2
  • Aleksandar Tasic
    • 1
  • Lucas Stephane
    • 3
  1. 1.Garmin InternationalOlatheUSA
  2. 2.Round FeatherSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institutt for EnergiteknikkHaldenNorway

Personalised recommendations