Design of a Fellowship Learning-by-Teaching Experience for Reflecting on Safety and Change

  • Timothy ArnoldEmail author
  • Helen J. A. FullerEmail author
  • Tandi M. BagianEmail author
  • William P. GunnerEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1205)


Leading change is a common topic covered in patient safety curricula. This paper describes the design of learning sessions that expand on this topic to more general concepts of safety and change across disciplines studying safety. The learning sessions were designed to be co-produced by fellows and faculty and to be thought of as an emerging phenomenon to accommodate an interprofessional class with a variety of expertise and knowledge. Cross-curricular connections were emphasized to facilitate discussion into potential interconnectedness and to identify inconsistencies. The resultant design provided the flexibility for customizing to each unique class. Future learning sessions will introduce concepts in resiliency and cognitive systems engineering while connecting to the sessions described here.


Patient safety Education Human factors Diffusion of innovation 



We would like to thank everybody at the Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety, patient safety fellows and fellowship faculty for their commitment to patient safety. Also, we thank B.V. Watts for providing the academic framework and leading past learning activities towards a collective understanding of these concepts. There were no relevant financial relationships or any source of support in the forms of grants, equipment, or drugs. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Department of Veterans Affairs.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Center for Patient SafetyAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.College of PharmacyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryThe George Washington UniversityWashington DCUSA

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