Multi-Agent Modelling and Simulation of Hospital Acquired Infection Propagation Dynamics by Contact Transmission in Hospital Wards

  • Dario EspositoEmail author
  • Davide Schaumann
  • Domenico Camarda
  • Yehuda E. Kalay
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12092)


Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are recognized worldwide as a major threat to hospital users. In this study, we present the Multi-Agent modelling and simulation of HAI propagation dynamics through exogenous cross-infection by a contact transmission route in a hospital ward. The model relies on the Event Based Modelling and Simulation approach. It is meant to deal with a wide range of pathogen types and scenarios of their spread within a hospital environment, which can be extended to integrate relevant emerging factors in the dynamic evolution of HAIs. The Agent-Based application was validated through a virtual simulation of a case study built in a Unity 3D environment, which generates a real time infection risk map. The simulation represents the building and its users in the situation of HAI risk in a coherent and dynamic system. It allows for the visualization of contamination propagation due to human spatial behaviour and activities. The case study was tested through a what-if scenario, allowing for the real-time visualization of transmission and assessing the effectiveness of different prevention and control measures on pathogen propagation. Of further interest was an understanding of the influences of architectural design and space distribution.


Multi-Agent simulation Hospital Acquired Infection Decision Support System 



We wish to thank prof. Jacob Yahav, prof. Francesco Maddalena and prof. Dino Borri for their methodological assistance, as well as the following research group members for their useful comments and insights: K. Date, E. Eizenberg, M. Gath Morad, L. Morhayim, N. Pilosof and E. Zinger.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, investigation, methodology, formalization and writing D.E.; software D.E. and D.S.; review and editing D.E., D.S. and D.C.; supervision and project administration D.C. and Y.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario Esposito
    • 1
    Email author
  • Davide Schaumann
    • 2
  • Domenico Camarda
    • 1
  • Yehuda E. Kalay
    • 3
  1. 1.Polytechnic University of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute at Cornell TechNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Technion, Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

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