Modeling Rutting Behavior of Crumb Rubber Modified Binders Using Design of Experiments

  • Reza Azadedel
  • Nader SolatifarEmail author
  • Maghsoud Rahbarnia
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 76)


In recent decades, modifying the binder with various additives for improving its behavior has been very noticeable by researchers. Crumb rubber is one of the additives which increases the rutting resistance of binder. The main objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting the resistance characteristics of binder regarding rutting and modeling its behavior at 64 °C using crumb rubber. For this purpose, one of the Design of Experiments (DoE) methods, i.e. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was utilized taking into account four factors, including mixing temperature, mixing time, mixing speed and content percentage (by weight) of crumb rubber, as well as one response, rutting parameter. As a result, 30 modified binder samples were produced and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test was conducted on the samples. Modeling was done and performance of the model was evaluated. Results show that developed model has a good prediction accuracy and the content of crumb rubber is more effective factor rather than other factors and the interaction of them. In addition, in a certain content percentage of crumb rubber, considering the mixing temperature and mixing speed at a low level and mixing time at a high level, the maximum rutting parameter could be achieved.


Crumb Rubber Modified Binder (CRMB) Binder rheology Rutting Design of Experiments (DoE) Response Surface Methodology (RSM) 


  1. AASHTO (2012) Standard method of test for determining the rheological properties of asphalt binder using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). American Association of State Highway and Transportation OfficialsGoogle Scholar
  2. Aflaki S, Tabatabaee N (2009) Proposals for modification of Iranian bitumen to meet the climatic requirements of Iran. Constr Build Mater 23(6):2141–2150. Scholar
  3. Al-Khateeb GG, Ramadan ZK (2014) Investigation of the effect of rubber on rheological properties of asphalt binders using superpave DSR. KSCE J Civil Eng 19(1):127–135. Scholar
  4. ASTM (2013) Standard test method for penetration of bituminous materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  5. ASTM (2014a) Standard test method for softening point of bitumen (ring-and-ball apparatus). ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  6. ASTM (2014b) Standard test method for compositional analysis by thermogravimetry, ASTM International, ASTM E1131-08, West Conshohocken.
  7. ASTM (2015a) Standard test method for solubility of asphalt materials in trichloroethylene. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  8. ASTM (2015b) Standard test methods for rubber—identification by infrared spectrophotometry ASTM International, ASTM D3677-10, West Conshohocken.
  9. ASTM (2017) Standard test method for ductility of asphalt materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  10. ASTM (2018) Standard test method for flash and fire points by cleveland open cup tester. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  11. Behnood A, Olek J (2017) Rheological properties of asphalt binders modified with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS), ground tire rubber (GTR), or polyphosphoric acid (PPA). Constr Build Mater 151:464–478. Scholar
  12. Bezerra MA, Santelli RE, Oliveira EP, Villar LS, Escaleira LA (2008) Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta 76(5):965–977. Scholar
  13. Chen Z, Pei J, Wang T, Amirkhanian S (2019) High temperature rheological characteristics of activated crumb rubber modified asphalts. Constr Build Mater 194:122–131. Scholar
  14. Fini EH, Hosseinnezhad S, Oldham D, Mclaughlin Z, Alavi Z, Harvey J (2019) Bio-modification of rubberised asphalt binder to enhance its performance. Int J Pavement Eng 20(10):1216–1225. Scholar
  15. Hajikarimi P, Aflaki S, Hoseini AS (2013) Implementing fractional viscoelastic model to evaluate low temperature characteristics of crumb rubber and gilsonite modified asphalt binders. Constr Build Mater 49(Supplement C):682–687. Scholar
  16. Kim H-S, Lee S-J, Amirkhanian S (2010) Rheology investigation of crumb rubber modified asphalt binders. KSCE J Civil Eng 14(6):839–843. Scholar
  17. Liu W, Yan K, Ge D, Chen M (2018) Effect of APAO on the aging properties of waste tire rubber modified asphalt binder. Constr Build Mater 175:333–341. Scholar
  18. Montgomery DC (2017) Design and analysis of experiments. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  19. Myers RH, Montgomery DC, Anderson-Cook CM (2016) Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  20. Subhy A (2017) Advanced analytical techniques in fatigue and rutting related characterisations of modified bitumen: literature review. Constr Build Mater 156:28–45. Scholar
  21. Stat-Ease I (2018) Design-Expert (Version, Minneapolis.
  22. Thodesen C, Shatanawi K, Amirkhanian S (2009) Effect of crumb rubber characteristics on crumb rubber modified (CRM) binder viscosity. Constr Build Mater 23(1):295–303. Scholar
  23. Venudharan V, Biligiri KP (2017) Effect of crumb rubber gradation on asphalt binder modification: rheological evaluation, optimization and selection. Mater Struct 50(2):129. Scholar
  24. Venudharan V, Biligiri KP, Das NC (2018) Investigations on behavioral characteristics of asphalt binder with crumb rubber modification: Rheological and thermo-chemical approach. Constr Build Mater 181:455–464. Scholar
  25. Wang D, Li D, Yan J, Leng Z, Wu Y, Yu J, Yu H (2018) Rheological and chemical characteristic of warm asphalt rubber binders and their liquid phases. Constr Build Mater 193:547–556. Scholar
  26. Wang H, You Z, Mills-Beale J, Hao P (2012) Laboratory evaluation on high temperature viscosity and low temperature stiffness of asphalt binder with high percent scrap tire rubber. Constr Build Mater 26(1):583–590. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reza Azadedel
    • 1
  • Nader Solatifar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maghsoud Rahbarnia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.RK Northwest Refining and Energy CompanyTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations