Globalisation: A Megatrend on Its Last Legs?
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As overused and abused words, Globalisation has lost its true meaning whilst at the same time losing its appeal. We define what the meaning and effects of Globalisation have been on our countries and its legacies, both positive and negative. In Travel and Tourism we deal with the phenomena of over-tourism, polarization of wealth and luxury tourism, the consolidation of distribution channels with vertical integration as well as horizontal expansions.
KeywordsGlobalisation Over tourism Luxury tourism Wealth inequality Travel and tourism distribution channels Digital monopolies and oligopolies
Online Publications: Organisation Site (Chap. 7.1)
- Fig. 6 Maddison, Angus. Real GDP per capita around the world (PPPadjusted) since 1000 (author Max Roser). https://ourworldindata.org/economic-growth.
- Fig 7 Our World in Data, World GDP over the last two millennia, World Bank & Maddison. (2017). https://ourworldindata.org/economic-growth.
- Fig. 8 World Bank. (2017). world development indicators database. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/74-trillion-global-economy-one-chart/.
- OXFAM. (2019). Five shocking facts about extreme wealth inequality. https://www.oxfam.org/en/5-shocking-facts-about-extreme-global-inequality-and-how-even-it.
- UNWTO International Tourism Highlights. (2019). International tourism continues to outpace the global economy. https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284421152.
- World Travel & Tourism Council, tourism supports 1 in 10 jobs (2017). https://www.wttc.org/about/media-centre/press-releases/press-releases/2017/tourism-supports-1-in-10-jobs-outpacing-global-economy-for-6th-consecutive-year-wttc/.
- CHINA Outbound Tourism Research Institute, OTRI, 180 million outbound chinese trips in 2019. https://china-outbound.com/2018/12/19/180-million-chinese-outbound-trips-in-2019/.
- UNESCO World Heritage Sites list 2019. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/.
- UK, High Pay Centre. (2019).Google Scholar
- CREDIT SUISSE, wealth report 7, 2018. https://citywire.co.uk/wealth-manager/news/credit-suisse-wealth-report-7-insights-into-the-uhnw-boom/a1167139.
- BAIN & Company, luxury report (2018). https://www.bain.com/about/media-center/press-releases/2018/bain-spring-luxury-report-2018/.
- Allied Market Research, UK, Report. (2019). https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/press-release/luxury-travel-market.html.
- STATISTA. (2019). Tripadvisor Statistcs and facts. https://www.statista.com/topics/3443/tripadvisor/.
Dissertation: Occasional Paper (Chap. 7.2)
- LADEST labratorio dati economici, storici, territoriali, A. Romano, C. Capineri , l’airificazione delle citta’, Airbnb e la produzione di ineguaglianza, 2018. https://www.che-fare.com/airificazione-citta-airbnb-ineguaglianza-studio/.
Books and Chapters (Chap. 7.4)
- Srnicek, Nick. (2016). Platfrom capitalism, polityGoogle Scholar
Journals and Articles (Chap. 7.1)
- Collins, Mike., Forbes. (2015). The pros and cons of globalisation. https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikecollins/2015/05/06/the-pros-and-cons-of-globalization/#38b6b53accce.
- Fig. 9 Piketty, T., E. Saez, and G. Zucman. (2018). Distributional national accounts: Methgods and estimates for the United States share of total household financial wealth—United States 1962–2014. The Quarterly Journal of Economic, (UC Berkley) 133 (2): 553–609. http://gabriel-zucman.eu/usdina/.
- Mogensen, Klaus. (2019). CIFS Copenhagen, Scenario magazine 2019, quoting EPI Economic Policy Institute, historic figures for wages & productivity, Scenario magazine.Google Scholar
- Antonio, Jose., Munez Lopez, Analistas Económicos de Andalucía, survey on Andalucian tourism. (2019). http://www.surinenglish.com/20131220/news/costasol-malaga/tourism-with-many-benefits-201312201037.html, University article.
- Hospitalitynet, Daniel E. Craig. (2019). Why Google’s rating might just be your most important quality metrics. https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4094027.html.