Growing Pains

  • Robert McLeanEmail author
  • James A. Densley


This chapter introduces the four key participants in the case study—Leo, Raph, Mikey, and Donnie and their entry into the world of gangs, with an emphasis on their early (adverse) childhood experiences.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Research Unit on Crime, Policing and Social JusticeUniversity of the West of ScotlandPaisleyScotland
  2. 2.School of Law Enforcement & Criminal JusticeMetropolitan State UniversitySaint PaulUSA

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