Advertisement

Research and Knowledge Exchange

  • Edward Crawley
  • John Hegarty
  • Kristina Edström
  • Juan Cristobal Garcia Sanchez
Chapter
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

How do research discoveries contribute more strongly to knowledge exchange and potentially innovation?

Researchers make discoveries at the frontiers of knowledge—often revealing phenomena or truths that were previously unknown or unexplained.

Discoveries that can be exchanged include new knowledge, facts, theories, analyses, and predictions, in single disciplines or across disciplines.

Knowledge is shared with research peers and more broadly. It is exchanged through discussions, publications, joint projects, and personnel exchanges. Graduates take new knowledge into their future work.

The potential for discoveries to become more impactful and lead to innovation depends on the choice of the research topic, how the research is conducted, what partners are involved, and how results are exchanged.

We have identified four research practices that increase the potential for impact of research discoveries on knowledge exchange and potentially on innovation:
  • Pursuing fundamental discoveries along a spectrum from curiosity-driven to use-inspired that impact both scholarship and society.

  • Collaborating within and across disciplines in search for new high-impact cross-disciplinary discoveries and fields of thought.

  • Empowering large-scale Centres of Research, Education, and Innovation to find directly implementable solutions to the pressing issues of society.

  • Energizing research by engaging undergraduate and postgraduate students, preparing them as agents of knowledge exchange.

Keywords

Research Discoveries Knowledge exchange Innovation Frontiers of knowledge New knowledge Interdisciplinary Cross-disciplinary Fundamentals Curiosity-driven Use-inspired Collaboration Centres Implementable solutions Students Agents 

References

  1. 1.
    Cambrige-MIT Institute (2008) Accelerating innovation by crossing boundaries 2000–2006Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stokes DE (1997) Pasteur’s quadrant: basic science and technological innovation. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brooks H (1968) The government of science. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conant JB (1951) Science and common sense, 16th edn. Yale University Press, New Heaven, CTGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Conant JB (1947) On understanding science. Yale University Press, New Heaven, CTGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Owen-Smith J (2018) Research universities and the public good: discovery for an uncertain future. Stanford Business Books, Palo Alto, CAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dowling DA (2005) The Dowling review of business-university research collaborations. Royal Academy of EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cummings JN, Kiesler S (2005) Collaborative research across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Soc Stud Sci 35:703–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cummings JN, Kiesler S (2008) Who collaborates successfully?: Prior experience reduces collaboration barriers in distributed interdisciplinary research. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Eupported Cooperative Work. San Diego, CA, pp 437–446Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eigenbrode SD, O’Rourke M, Wulfhorst JD, Althoff DM, Goldberg CS, Merril K, Morse W, Nielsen-Pincus M, Stephens J, Winowiecki L, Bosque-Pérez NA (2007) Employing philosophical dialogue in collaborative science. Bioscience 57:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Galison P (1997) Image and logic: a material culture of microphysics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine (2005) Facilitating interdisciplinary research. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ackworth EB (2008) University–industry engagement: the formation of the knowledge integration community (KIC) model at the Cambridge-MIT Institute. Res Policy 37:1241–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (2019) 70 years of Fraunhofer: 70 years of future. Munich, Germany. https://www.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/zv/en/Publications/Annual-Report/2018/Fraunhofer-Annual-Report-2018.pdf. Accessed 2 Jan 2020
  15. 15.
    National Academy of Engineering (2017) NAE grand challenges for engineering, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fontana R, Geuna A, Matt M (2006) Factors affecting university-industry R&D projects: the importance of searching, screening and signalling. Res Policy 35:309–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lécuyer C (2005) What do universities really owe industry? The case of solid state electronics at Stanford. Minerva 43:51–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Etzkowitz H (2008) The triple helix: university—industry—government in action. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bloedon RV, Stokes D (1994) Making university/industry collaborative research succeed. Res Technol Manage 37:44–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Russell SH, Hancock MP, McCullough J (2007) Benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Science 316:548–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Crawley
    • 1
  • John Hegarty
    • 2
  • Kristina Edström
    • 3
  • Juan Cristobal Garcia Sanchez
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Trinity College DublinDublinIreland
  3. 3.KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations