Institutionalizing Stakeholder Engagement

  • Aimee L. Franklin


Processes for gathering representative inputs about organizational activities or preferences related to decisions are seldom institutionalized. After reviewing the inputs of stakeholders, participation activities, and participant motivations in the earlier chapters, this statement may not seem surprising. There are almost as many types and groupings of stakeholders as there are active and passive participation activities. The number and variety of both have been continuously growing alongside globalization and technological advances, which, when combined, increase the geographic reach of stakeholders and organizations. Motivations can push and pull people into participation. Making an organizational commitment to a stakeholder engagement regime signals that an organization desires to be proactively responsive to stakeholders through their decisions as well as in the everyday activities of providing goods and services. Stakeholder engagement practices promote and evaluate relationships and design strategies for relationship management that can enhance value creation related to the organization’s economic and social performance goals.


  1. Allison, G., & Zelikow, P. (1999). Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (2 edition). New York, NY: Pearson.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, R. D. (1990). The logic of congressional action. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. American Institution of Planners Journal, 35(7), 216–224.Google Scholar
  4. Bachrach, P. (1967). The theory of democratic elitism: A critique. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  5. Bardach, E. (1998). Getting agencies to work together: The practice and theory of managerial craftsmanship. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  6. Baum, H. S. (1982). The advisor as invited intruder. Public Administration Review, 42(6), 546–552.Google Scholar
  7. Belasco, J. A., & Alutto, J. A. (1969). Line staff conflicts: Some empirical insights. The Academy of Management Journal, 12(4), 469–477.Google Scholar
  8. Benveniste, G. (1972). The politics of expertise. Berkeley, CA: Glendessary Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berman, E. M. (1997). Dealing with cynical citizens. Public Administration Review, 57(2), 105–112.Google Scholar
  10. Berry, J. M., Portney, K. E., & Thomson, K. (1993). The rebirth of urban democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bland, R. L., & Rubin, I. S. (1997). Budgeting: A guide for local governments. Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.Google Scholar
  12. Bourne, L. (2016). Stakeholder relationship management: A maturity model for organisational implementation. Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Routledge Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Buck, J. V. (1984). The impact of citizen participation programs and policy decisions on participants’ opinions. Western Political Quarterly, 37(3), 468–482.Google Scholar
  14. Buckwalter, N. D. (2014). The potential for public empowerment through government-organized participation. Public Administration ReviewGoogle Scholar
  15. Cain, B., Ferejohn, J., & Fiorina, M. (1987). The personal vote: Constituency service and electoral independence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Callahan, K. (2002). The Utilization and Effectiveness of Citizen Advisory Committees in the Budget Process of Local Governments. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management, 14(2), 295–319.Google Scholar
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mirambeau, A., Elmi, J., Losby, J., & Gervin, D. (2013). Evaluation reporting: A guide to help ensure use of evaluation findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  18. Chapman, R. L., & Cleaveland, F. N. (1973). The changing character of the public service and the administrator of the 1980’s. Public Administration Review, 33(4), 358–366.Google Scholar
  19. Choi, J., & Wang, H. (2009). Stakeholder relations and the persistence of corporate financial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 30(8), 895–907.Google Scholar
  20. Cronbach, L. J. (1982). Designing evaluation of educational and social programs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Cunningham, R., & Olshfski, D. (1986). Interpreting state administrator-legislator relationships. The Western Political Quarterly, 39(1), 104–117.Google Scholar
  22. Dohnalová, Z., & Zimola, B. (2014). Corporate stakeholder management. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110, 879–886.Google Scholar
  23. Donovan, T., & Bowler, S. (2004). Reforming the republic: Democratic institutions for the new America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  24. Dyson, L. L. (1999). Developing a university-school district partnership; researcher-district administrator collaboration for a special education initiative. Canadian Journal of Education, 24(4), 411–425.Google Scholar
  25. Ebdon, C., & Franklin, A. L. (2006). Citizen participation in budget theory. Public Administration Review, 66(3), 437–447.Google Scholar
  26. Franklin, A. L., & Ebdon, C. (2004). Aligning priorities in local budgeting processes. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management, 16(2), 210–227.Google Scholar
  27. Franklin, A. L., Krane, D., & Ebdon, C. (2013). Multilevel governance processes–citizens & local budgeting: Comparing Brazil, China, & the United States. International Review of Public Administration, 18(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  28. Freeman, R. E. (2004). The stakeholder approach revisited. Zeitschrift Für Wirtschafts-Und Unternehmensethik, 5(3), 228–254.Google Scholar
  29. Ghosh Moulick, A., & Taylor, L. L. (2016). Fiscal slack, budget shocks, and performance in public organizations: Evidence from public schools. Public Management Review, 1–16.
  30. Graves, S. B., & Waddock, S. A. (2000). Beyond built to last... Stakeholder relations in “Built-to-Last” companies. Business and Society Review, 105(4), 393–418.Google Scholar
  31. Greenstone, J. D., & Peterson, P. E. (1973). Race and authority in urban politics: Community participation and the war on poverty. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  32. Hageboeck, M., & collaborators. (2016). Evaluation utilization at USAID. Management Systems International, a Tetra Tech Company.
  33. Hallman, H. (1972). Federally-financed citizen participation. Public Administration Review, 32, 421–428.Google Scholar
  34. Hord, S. M. (1992). Facilitating leadership: The imperative for change. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory..Google Scholar
  35. Irland, L. C. (1975). Citizen participation: A tool for conflict management on the public lands. Public Administration Review, 263–269.Google Scholar
  36. King, C. S., Feltey, K. M., & Susel, B. O. (1998). The question of participation; toward authentic public participation in public administration. Public Administration Review, 58(4), 317–326.Google Scholar
  37. Koontz, T. M. (1999). Administrators and citizens: Measuring agency officials’ efforts to foster and use public input in forest policy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 9(2), 251–280.Google Scholar
  38. Koopenjan, J., & Klign, E. H. (2004). Managing uncertainties in networks: A network approach to problem solving and decision making. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Kotter, J. P. (1977). Power, dependence and effective management. Harvard Business Review, 55(4), 125–136.Google Scholar
  40. Krane, D., Ebdon, C., & Franklin, A. L. (2020). Social entrepreneurship and the challenge of collaborative governance of civic events: Brazil, Korea, and the United States. In M. N. Iftikhar, J. B. Justice, & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Urban studies and entrepreneurship (pp. 119–142). Springer International Publishing.
  41. Kweit, R. W., & Kweit, M. G. (1980). Bureaucratic decision-making impediments to citizen participation. Polity, 647–666.Google Scholar
  42. Kweit, R. W., & Kweit, M. G. (2004). Citizen participation and citizen evaluation in disaster recovery. American Review of Public Administration, 34(4), 354–373.Google Scholar
  43. Levine, A. L. (1979). The role of the technoscience administrator in managing national science policy. Public Administration Review, 39(2), 122–128.Google Scholar
  44. Lindblom, C., & Woodhouse, E. (1993). The policy making process (3rd ed.). Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  45. Long, E., & Franklin, A. L. (2004). The paradox of implementing the government performance and results act: Top-down direction for bottom-up implementation. Public Administration Review, 64(3), 309–319. Scholar
  46. May, J. D. (1965). Democracy, organization, Michels. The American Political Science Review, 59(2), 417–429.Google Scholar
  47. Miller, G. J., & Evers, L. (2002). Budgeting structures and citizen participation. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management; Boca Raton, 14(2), 233–272. Scholar
  48. Miller, W. E., & Stokes, D. E. (1966). Constituency influence in congress. In A. Campbell (Ed.), Elections and the political order (pp. 351–372). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Moneva, J. M., Rivera-Lirio, J. M., & Muñoz-Torres, M. J. (2007). The corporate stakeholder commitment and social and financial performance. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 107, 84.Google Scholar
  50. Niskanen Jr., W. A. (1971). Greedy bureaucrat. Chicago, IL: Aldine-Atherton.Google Scholar
  51. Nutt, P. C., & Backoff, R. W. (1992). Strategic management of public and third sector organizations: A handbook for leaders (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  52. Olander, S., & Landin, A. (2008). A comparative study of factors affecting the external stakeholder management process. Construction Management and Economics, 26(6), 553–561.Google Scholar
  53. Olsen, J. P. (2002). Maybe it is time to rediscover bureaucracy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  54. Onibokun, A. G., & Curry, M. (1976). An ideology of citizen participation: The metropolitan Seattle transit case study. Public Administration Review, 36, 269–277.Google Scholar
  55. O’Toole, D. E., Marshall, J., & Grewe, T. (1996). Current local government budgeting practices. Government Finance Review, 12(6), 25–29.Google Scholar
  56. Patton, M. Q. (2008). Utilization-focused evaluation (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  57. Peloza, J., Loock, M., Cerruti, J., & Muyot, M. (2012). Sustainability: How stakeholder perceptions differ from corporate reality. California Management Review, 55(1), 74–97.Google Scholar
  58. Posavac, E. J., & Carey, R. G. (2002). Program evaluation: Methods and case studies (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  59. Preble, J. F. (2005). Toward a comprehensive model of stakeholder management. Business & Society Review, 110(4), 407–431.Google Scholar
  60. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  61. Reich, R. B. (2002). Policy making in a democracy. In P. Kobrak (Ed.), The political environment of public management (pp. 122–149). New York, NY: AB Longman.Google Scholar
  62. Rosener, J. B. (1978). Citizen participation: Can we measure its effectiveness? Public Administration Review, 38, 457–463.Google Scholar
  63. Rosener, J. B. (1982). Making bureaucrats responsive: A study of the impact of citizen participation and staff recommendations on regulatory decision making. Public Administration Review, 42, 339–345.Google Scholar
  64. Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. E. (2003). Evaluation: A systematic approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  65. Rourke, F. E. (1960). Bureaucracy in conflict: Administrators and professionals. Ethics, 70(3), 220–227.Google Scholar
  66. Sachs, S., & Maurer, M. (2009). Toward dynamic corporate stakeholder responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(3), 535–544.Google Scholar
  67. Schaller, L. E. (1964). Is the citizen advisory committee a threat to representative government? Public Administration Review, 24(3), 175–179.Google Scholar
  68. Scholtens, B., & Zhou, Y. (2009). Stakeholder relations and financial performance. Sustainable Development, 16(3), 213–232.Google Scholar
  69. Stivers, C. (1990). The public agency as polis: Active citizenship in the administrative state. Administration and Society, 22(1), 86–105.Google Scholar
  70. Strange, J. H. (1972). The impact of citizen participation on public administration. Public Administration Review, 32(Special Issue), 457–470.Google Scholar
  71. Svara, J. (1994). Facilitative leadership in local government: Lessons for successful mayors and chairpersons. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  72. Thomas, J. C. (1995). Public participation in public decisions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  73. Thompson, F., & Jones, L. R. (1986). Controllership in the public sector. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 53(3), 547–571.Google Scholar
  74. Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in action. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  75. Van Meter, E. C. (1975). Citizen participation in the policy management process. Public Administration Review, 35(Special Issue), 804–812.Google Scholar
  76. Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic volunteerism in American politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Waddock, S. A., & Graves, S. B. (1997). Quality of management and quality of stakeholder relations: Are they synonymous? Business & Society, 36(3), 250–279.Google Scholar
  78. White, L. D. (1948). Introduction to the study of public administration (3rd ed.). Macmillan.Google Scholar
  79. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., & Newcomer, K. E. (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  80. Williamson, O. E. (1979). Transaction-cost economics: The governance of contractual relations. Journal of Law and Economics, 233–261.Google Scholar
  81. Wilson, J. Q. (1991). Bureaucracy: What government agencies do and why they do it (1st ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  82. Wondolleck, J. M., Manning, N. J., & Crowfoot, J. W. (1996). Teetering at the top of the ladder: The experience of citizen group participants in alternative dispute resolution processes. Sociological Perspectives, 39(2), 249–262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aimee L. Franklin
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OklahomaNormanUSA

Personalised recommendations